History: Medicine - Physicians

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  • Physicians: Through Time
    • Roman Physicians
      • Uroscopy: Urine charts were used to match the patient's urine to in order to check that it was normal
      • During the Roman times, Hippocrates and Galen wrote books that physicians followed religiously
      • In Roman times, the church owned the universities and were very strict, which meant that people could not go against their teachings
        • English trainee physician Roger Bacon suggested that physicians do their own research than just read and got thrown into prison by church leaders
    • Medieval Physicians
      • Physicians believed that people became ill when their humours were out of balance
        • They trained at university by reading Hippocrates and Galen books
          • Physicians' learning was limited by religion because of the church who controlled universities and their reading and learning
    • Industrial Revolution Physicians
      • A great growth in research led to many medical breakthroughs
        • New ideas of evolution (Darwin) and genetics (Mendel) broke the control of the church over medicine
      • Germ theory 1861 (Louis Pasteur) revolutionised the way physicians worked on patients as they started to consider more scientific causes for disease
        • Smallpox vaccination in 1798 (Edward Jenner) developed physicians' treatments
          • The idea of miasma still existed in the 1800s, especially as the more bad the air smelt the more disease had existed at that time
          • In the 1800s Joseph Lister developed a very powerful microscope which helped with research supporting animacules
        • Francis and Crick discovered human DNA and this revolutionised science and the way physicians understand diseases and disorders
    • Twentieth Century Physicians
      • Harmful ingredients in most herbal remedies had been removed
        • Drugs began developing and there was an increasing growth of the pharmacy industry, such as with 'magic bullets', which at first could kill the patient but after more research killed bacteria only and the first person ever was cured chemically
          • 1940 - This eventually developed into the use of antibiotics to cure a number of illnesses
      • Physicians began to focus on diseases and disorders as they now had more understanding, rather than illnesses like colds, because they were common with cures
        • Alternative treatments such as acupuncture, homeopathy and herbal remedies developed were trusted and paid for by a huge number of people
          • Machinery and technology advanced hugely for disorder treatments
          • NHS and free healthcare for everyone due to the Labour government
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  • Spontaneous generation was a well-considered theory by physicians for the cause of disease, which was that disease animacules appeared spontaneously when something decayed


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