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  • Created by: szaheer
  • Created on: 13-04-15 14:52
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  • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
    • RESTLESS EARTH
      • 4 types of plate margins
      • fold mountains
        • when the tectonic  plates collide the sedimentary ricks that have built up between them are folded and are forced upwards to form mountains. they are found on destructive plate margins and places where there used to be destructive margins.
          • what are the uses of fold mountains?
            • explain these uses:             framing HEP forestry mining and tourism
        • case study: The Andes
          • Why do they use the Andes?(brazil) nazca and south american plate, the plates are moving together, destructive subduction. Farming- the cut terraces and plant there crops on the side to prevent any damages because rain can go down to the terrace also the farmers would grow the crop for themselves which is called subsistence and they would grow soybeans rice and cotton. other uses are HEP tourism and mining.
      • EARTHUAKES
        • FORMATION:earthquakes are caused by the tension that builds up at all three types pf plate margins.DESTRUCTIVE MARGINS-tension builds up when one plate gets stuck as its moving down past the other into the mantle OR CONSTRUCTIVE MARGINS- tension builds up along cracks within the  plates as they move away from eachother.......the plates eventually jerk past each other sending out shock waves. these vibrations are the earthquake.
          • CASE STUDY: sichuan LEDC south china
            • 12th may 2008, 2:28pm, 7.9, richter scale      PRIMARY EFFECTS-- 5 million buildings collapsed due to cheap materials, 900 pupils died, 69,000 killed and 18,000missing, 400,000 injured schools collapsed.
              • SECONDARY EFFECTS-- $75million damage    landslides blocked and rivers leading to problems, buisness ruined and no schools or teachers.
            • CAUSES--the pressure from the Indian plate colliding with Eurasian plate was released the longmenshan fault line that runs beneath sichuan. Indian plate went under the Eurasion plate
            • IMMEDIATE RESPONSES-- 20 helicopters troops began parachuting in the assess the situation 1000 of army troops were deployed. 3.3 million people got provided food, water and shelter    LONG TERM RESPONSES-international help red cross donated £100 million  debt of people who did not have insurance cancelled by banks.
            • CASE STUDY: KOBE JAPAN 17TH JANUARY 1995 7.2 RICHTER SCALE $220 DAMAGE
              • PRIMARY EFFECTS--buildings collapsed and bridges falling objects roads destroyed panacked buildings        SECONDARY EFFECTS-- fire caused by cookers diseases spreaded tsunami   communication lines stopped
              • CAUSES-- philippine caused and Eurasion plate subduction   Philippine plate is forced down   plates jam together and pressure builds up
              • IMMEDIATE RESPONSES-- emergency services 7 eleven helped telephone free of charge people searched for others hospitals helped          LONG TERM RESPONSES--restore the road network rubber blocks were put under bridges to absorb shock railways opened high biuldings
        • how do you measure an Earthquake?
          • Richter scale- the strength of earthquakes is usually Richter given according to the scale(1-10)there is a ten fold increase
          • Mercalli scale- measures the amount of damage caused by the earthquake. this is measured using roman numerals 1-12.
        • how do you monitor and predict an? aerthquake
          • you cant predict or monitor earthquakes because they can be friction in the ground but no earthquake or an earthquake can happen out of the blue with no warnings.
      • TSUNAMI
        • Formation?  thermal currents into mantle move the plates Oceaic crust subducts underneath continental plate Pressure builds up until he plates suddenly slip Ocean floor drops Waves travel outwards Shallow water the wave The wave arrives on land as a devastating flood.
          • CASE STUDY: Indian Ocean Tsunami  Sumatra 26th December 2004 Australia plate subducting beneath the Eurasian plate
            • EFFECTS-- Holmes destroyed millions killed buildings destroyed flooding services destroyed hit india sri lanka as well.
            • IMMEDIATE RESPONSES-- fresh water, food rents, sheering, rescue services and emergency teams   water purification tablets      LONG TERM RESPONSES-- IOT system was set up    year later £372 was donated by the British public rebuilding   £million was promised by the goverment

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