Persian and Attitude change

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  • Persuasion and attitude change
    • The Hovland-Yale model
      • Attitude change is a sequential process
        • Stages
          • Attention
            • notice the message
          • Comprehension
            • Understand the message
              • keep it simple so adverts don't go over peoples heads
          • Reactance
            • Accept or reject the message
            • Either agree or regard as rubbish
      • pervasion Is dependant on several factors
        • The source
          • higher credibility
            • Hovland and weiss
          • Physical appearance
            • Physically attractive people are more persuasive than less attractive sources
              • Kiesler and Keisler
              • Eg Ryan Gosling for Gucci perfume
              • Hume
                • Celebrity endorsement can overshadow the product
          • Speed of speech
            • Rapid speakers are more persuasive than slow speakers
              • Miller et al
        • Message factors
          • Messages which are not directly targeted at us are more effective
            • Walster et Festinger
          • Fear
            • Persuasion can be increased by fearful messages
            • Chaiken et al
            • large amounts of fear will switch people off
        • Medium factors
          • audio messages are more persuasive  than written messages
            • Chaiken et al
        • Target factors
          • people with a lower self-esteem are easier to persuade than those with a higher self esteem
            • Janis
          • Children are more influenced
            • loftus misleading information
        • Source X target
          • we're more likely to be persuaded by someone similar to us
            • for example the same ethnic background
            • Moore
      • Gender bias
        • women are more susceptible to persuasion than men
          • women are socialised to conform and therefore are open more to social influence
            • Eagly
            • era dependant- most of this research comes from 1970's when gender equality wasn't as string
      • Age biased
        • participants mainly contains students
        • these groups had an age and education profile which was untypical of the general public
          • decrease population validity
        • Participants were also able to give the stimuli the attention that they wouldn't be able to in real life
          • decrease ecological validity
    • Elaboration model
      • Petty and Cacioppo
        • Believe that for an argument be persuasive the individual needs to consider it
          • however views can be cognitive misers
        • The central route
          • involves a great deal of thought and cognitive effort
          • viewer follows the arguments carefully and closely and may consider counter arguements
          • Persuasion depends on the quality of the argument
          • Attitude is change permanent
        • The peripheral route
          • involves  minimal cognitive effort
          • person does not pay much attention or give much thought to the message they're being presented with
          • likely to use cues or shortcuts to make their decisions
          • Attitude change is likely to be temporary
        • people in need of high cognition more likely to use central route
        • Shaffer
          • if the message has little relevance to us or we have no experience we're likely to resort to peripheral processing
      • Vidrine et al
        • participants even exposed to central fact based route or peripheral emotion based smoking risk campaign
        • people with a higher need for cognitions were more influenced by the central route
        • those with a lower need for cognitions were more influenced by the peripheral route
        • Explains why health claims that are unsupported by research claims are often appealing to many people
      • Taylor
        • most human beings rely on simple and time-efficient strategies when processing info
        • if the info isn't personally important then they'll be more influenced by contextual cues
          • eg celebrity endorsement
        • when the content is more important they're more likely to be more engaged with the text
          • ie we're more influenced with Gary lineker endorsing crisp but not if he was endorsing mortgages

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