Ionisation Energies - OCR - Unit 1

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  • Created by: Eleanor
  • Created on: 17-03-13 09:49
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  • Ionisation Energies
    • Down the periodic table
      • Ionisation energy DECREASES
      • An increase in the number of electron shells
        • Distance of the outer electrons from nucleus increases
          • Weaker force of attraction on the outer electrons
      • More inner shells
        • Increased electron shielding
          • Less attraction on the outer electrons
      • Increased atomic radius
        • Less attraction means that electrons are not pulled as close to the nucleus
    • Across the periodic table
      • Electrons added to the same energy level
      • Ionisation energy INCREASES
      • The number of protons in the nucleus increases
        • A stronger nuclear attraction acting on the electrons
      • The increased nuclear charge pulls the electrons towards it
        • Decrease in atomic radius
    • First Ionisation energy: Definition
      • The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
    • Affecting Factors
      • Atomic Radius
        • Greater the atomic radius, smaller the nuclear attraction
      • Nuclear Charge
        • The greater the nuclear charge, the greater the attractive force on the outer electrons
      • Electron Shielding
        • Inner shells of electrons repel outer shell electrons
          • The more inner shells there are, the larger the shielding effect
    • First Ionisation energy equation
      • X(g)----->X+(g) + e-
    • Each successive ionisation energy is greater than the first
      • This is due to the distance of each electron from the nucleus is decreasing


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