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acid A species that is a proton donor.

activation energy The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds.

addition polymer A very long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene

addition polymerisation The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers) add…

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catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the proces

cation A positively charged ion.

cis­trans isomerism A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a nonhydrogen group and a hydrogen atom o
bond: the cis isomer (Z isomer) has…

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endothermic reaction A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants, re
from the surroundings (H +ve).

enthalpy, H The heat content that is stored in a chemical system.

(standard) enthalpy change of The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole…

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heterolytic fission The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, f
an anion (­ ion).

homogeneous catalysis A reaction in which the catalyst and reactants are in the same physical state, which is most freq
gaseous state.

homologous series A…

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molar mass, M The mass of a mole of a substance. The units of molar mass are g mol­1.

molar volume The volume per mole of a gas. The units of molar volume are dm3 mol­1. At room temperature a
volume is approximately 24.0 dm3 mol­1.

mole The amount of…

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propagation The two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction.

radical A species with an unpaired electron.

rate of reaction The change in concentration of a reactant or a product in a given time.

redox reaction A reaction in which both reduction and…

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stereoisomers Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of the atoms in s

stoichiometry The molar relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction.

stratosphere The second layer of the Earth's atmosphere, containing the `ozone layer', about 10 km to 50 km…


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