Particle Physics

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  • Particle Physics
    • Matter
      • Hadrons
        • NOT fundamental strong force & weak force
        • Made of Quarks
          • Mesons
            • Pions
              • pi + is up antidown
              • Pi - is down antiup
              • Pi 0 is either up antiup or down antidown
            • Kaons
              • K+ is up antistrange
                • Strangeness
                  • K0 is down antistrange
                  • strangeness is conserved when an s quark is produced via the strong interaction
                  • Strangeness ( S) isn't conserved when S quarks decay via the weak interaction
                    • S can change by +1 or -1
              • K- is strange antiup
                • Strangeness
                  • K0 is down antistrange
                  • strangeness is conserved when an s quark is produced via the strong interaction
                  • Strangeness ( S) isn't conserved when S quarks decay via the weak interaction
                    • S can change by +1 or -1
              • Anti k0 is strange antidown
              • made of 2 quarks
            • Baryons
              • made of 3 quarks
              • baryons have  a baryon number of 1 . Antibaryon has a baryon number of -1. If it is not a baryon its baryon number is 0. A quark has baryon number of 1/3 and antiquark has a baryon number of -1/3.
              • P is up, up ,down
                • Proton is the most stable
              • anti P is antiup,antiup,antidown
              • N is up, down ,down
              • anti N is antiup, antidown, antidown
        • Leptons
          • fundamental, strong and weak force
          • electron, muon, tao, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino,
          • a lepton has a lepton number of 1. An antilepton has a lepton number of -1 and not a lepton has a lepton number of 0
        • Bosons
          • fundamental
          • electromagnetic has an exchange particle of a virtual photon. strong Nuclear force has an exchange particle of a gluon (pion).the weak nuclear force has an exchange particle of w+, w- and z0.The gravitational has possibly the exchange particle of a graviton but this hasn't been discovered yet.
            • the virtual photon has an infinite range
            • the gluon has  a short range
              • no effect outside of nucleus
                • the w boson has a vey short range
            • the w boson has a vey short range
          • exchange particles
            • force carriers
      • Conservation
        • the following Quantum numbers are conserved:   1) Baryon number         2)Lepton Number        3)Strangeness
        • the following physical quantities are conserved : m/E , Q , p=mv
        • pair production
          • hfmin=2E =   2(mc^2)
        • pair Annihilation
          • pair production
            • hfmin=2E =   2(mc^2)
          • 2hf = 2E =2mc^2
          • quarks and antiquarks have the same rest mass but opposite charge
      • particles and antiparticles
        • quarks and antiquarks have the same rest mass but opposite charge
      • Specific Charge
        • particle = q/m
        • nucleus = z*e / nuclear mass
        • ion =      number of electrons lost or gained * e  / nuclear mass + mass of remaining electrons
        • charge for mass ratio
          • Q/m (ckg^-1)
      • Atom
        • discovery of electron
          • highest specific charge
          • J.J. Thompson
            • electron beam tube ( deflection in electric and magnetic field)
        • discovery of nucleus
          • Rutherford particle scattering with gold leaf experiment
          • made of protons an neutrons
      • Isotopes
        • same proton number different neutron number
          • top number is the nucleon number . the bottom number is the proton number
        • Radioactivity
          • random
            • cannot predict when/which nucleus will decay
          • spontaneous
            • independent of physical conditions

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