Participation

A mindmap to show the different types of participation and the factors that affect participation.

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  • Participation
    • Age
      • Sports played by younger people are:
        • Played at a higher intensity
        • More physically strenuous
        • Have more contact and impact
      • Sports played by older people are:
        • Slower
        • More social
        • Far more tactical
      • The things that change with age are:
        • Oxygen Capacity
          • Decreases with age
            • Lungs become less efficient, the arteries lose elasticity, increased blood pressure, therefore reduction in blood flow
        • Strength
          • Decreases with elderly age
        • Skill Levels
          • Improves with age
        • Flexibility
          • Decreases with age
        • Recovery
          • Recovery time increases
            • Greater chance of injury from the gradual wear and tear of the body
    • Disability
      • Parking
        • Wider and deeper parking spaces that are closer to the facility
      • Access
        • Disabled people need to have ease of access into leisure centres
          • Ramps
          • Lifts
          • Larger changing rooms
          • Access to pools via hoists
      • Provision
        • Specialist coaches and training is needed.
        • Time required for able and disable bodied people can play the same sport
        • Specialist clubs and sessions at centres
      • Adaptations
        • Sports must be adapted so that athletes with a disability can partake
    • Gender
      • Bone Structure
        • Women are prone to osteoporosis due to a decrease in bone density with age
      • Strength
        • Men are generally stronger than females
          • Men have a greater muscle mass
            • Provides them with an advantage in strength and contact requiring sports
      • Flexibility
        • Females have increased flexibility
      • Cardiovascular Endurance
        • Females have smaller lungs and hearts.
          • They take in less oxygen which reduces their performance in endurance events
        • Men have better cardiovascular endurance than women.
      • Fat
        • Females have increased amounts of body fat due to a slower metabolic rate
      • Physique
        • Females have wider hips and narrower shoulders
        • The release of testosterone causes men to be naturally larger and more muscular
    • Physique
      • Endomorph
        • Pear shaped body, wide hips, wide shoulders, high percentage of body fat, short legs
      • Ectomorph
        • Narrow shoulders amd hips, thin arms and legs, low muscle bulk, low fat
      • Mesomorph
        • Wedge shaped body, broad shoulders, narrow hips, high muscle bulk, low fat
      • Most sportspeople are:
        • Mesomorphic, because they have a fair amount of strength and power
    • Environment
      • Weather
        • Summer
          • Hotter and drier
            • Sun can blind athletes, hydration is very important, wet weather would stop summer sports.
            • Lighter, whiter clothing would be needed for increased sunlight reflection  and to avoid overheating
            • Sun cream and hats are very important to avoid sunburn and in turn sunstroke
        • Winter
          • Wet and slippery
            • Harder to tackle. harder to change direction, slower running from heavier clothing and having to run in mud
          • Cold and windy
            • Warmer clothing needed
      • Pollution
        • Clogs up air
          • Less oxygen
            • Harder to breathe
              • The working muscles receive less oxygen
                • They get tired more quickly
              • Higher breathing rate
                • Light-headedness and therefore hyperventilation
            • Less oxygen in the lung capacity
              • Stops athletes from producing their full potential
      • Altitude
        • Less oxygen in the air at a higher altitude
          • A performer's breathing rate increases to equal the amount of oxygen that would be obtained at sea level
            • Over time, the body naturally produces more red blood cells
              • This allows the body to intake the correct amount of oxygen
                • Upon return to sea level, the athlete has increased its red blood cell production
                  • More oxygen can be carried
                    • A performer can therefore work for longer before the onset of fatigue
      • Humidity
        • More humid conditions causes us to sweat more
          • Athletes need to be fully hydrated to avoid dehydration
      • Terrain
        • Rocky ground
          • These terrains will slow down performers
        • Ice and slippery surfaces
        • Soft slushy snow
    • Risk & Challenge
      • Challenge
        • A test of your ability or resources in a demanding situation
          • Some people choose to take part in sports that involve risk and challenge because:
            • Of the adrenaline, fun and excitement
            • It makes taking part worthwhile
      • Risk
        • The possibility of suffering harm, loss or damage
          • Some people choose to take part in sports that involve risk and challenge because:
            • Of the adrenaline, fun and excitement
            • It makes taking part worthwhile
    • Activity Levels
      • Competitive Activities
        • Performers must be highly committed
          • Performers must train to compete (fitness, skill training and a competitive match)
            • Full days could be set aside for these matches
      • Recreational Activities
        • Not as physically demanding
          • No special training or preparation required
            • To take part in the activity for a length of time at a convenient time
      • Individual Factors
        • Age
          • A student may have more time to participate in sport than someone with a full time job
      • Performance Levels
        • There are different factors to performance levels
          • Someone who is playing at the top of their game is one factor
            • An athlete would have to dediacte their time to being an active participant if they compete at an area, county or international level
    • Training
      • There are 3 stages of training
        • Peak-season
          • The main competitive period
          • Concentration on skill
          • Ongoing fitness sessions
        • Post-season
          • A period of rest and recovery
          • Levels of general fitness are required
        • Pre-season
          • This is the time leading up to the competition
          • A time of preparation, concentrating on fitness and developing techniques specific to the activity
      • Factors that affect our ability to train:
        • Available time
          • Only professionals have a free choice of time
            • Time is required for training and competition
              • Amateur performers find it difficult to train more due to other committments
        • Available funds
          • More funds means more time
            • Funding allows for better facilities and equipment and even a personal trainer
              • Performers seek for sponsorship for extra funds
                • Sponsorship allows them to train at a higher level and at a more regular time
  • Decreases with age
  • Performance Levels
    • There are different factors to performance levels
      • Someone who is playing at the top of their game is one factor
        • An athlete would have to dediacte their time to being an active participant if they compete at an area, county or international level

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