Parental investement into upbringing

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  • Parental theory of investment
    • Robert Trivers
      • Parental investment is the amount of time , energy and effort put into the reproduction and upbringing of a child
    • Maternal investment
      • considerably greater than males
        • limited supply of ova
        • ova are 100 times bigger than sperm
        • reproductive life is around 30 years
        • large following pre-natal
          • carried the growing foetus for nine months
            • risks her own life
              • uses her own nourishment 1000 calories
          • breast feeding
            • for the first two years in the past
          • left holding the baby and so has to be responsible for the babies up bringing
      • why
        • brain size has increased making child birth more risky
          • the compensate childbirth happens earlier in the development of the child
            • babies are more relatively immature
              • altricial
        • puts the importance of resources on the partner
          • extramarital affairs
            • find a man who has good resources but have someone whos got good genes' baby
            • magazine survey of 2700 women
              • Baker and Bellis estimated from results that 14% of the population were from extramarital mating's
            • also receive additional social support
            • risk of abandonment and mater retention strategies by current partner
              • daly and Wilson
    • Paternal investment
      • relatively small investment
        • large amount of sperm that can me made in a short amount of time
        • large life of fertility
        • capable of many mating's in a short amount of time
          • only limited  by number of females
        • only use of energy is in the conception of a baby
          • but dunbar found that males do want to be involved in upbringing to ensure sucess
      • cuckoldry
        • important that they don't invest their resources into offspring that isn't their own
        • make a greater investment than females in terms of resources, so more worried about infidelity
          • Miller
        • Anderson
          • step fathers and fathers invested the same amount into their children
        • men adopt children
      • sexual and emotional jealousy
        • buss believes this is a solution to avoid cuckoldry
        • females are more worried about emotional infidelity because they could lose resources
        • Buss et al with US students
          • males more worried about sexual infidelity and females more worried about emotional infidelity
            • then they looked physiological responses to infidelity
              • arouses corresponded
      • evolutionary approach is reductionist
        • rowe suggests that the explanation bases on gene success is limited
          • personal and social conditions
            • quality of relationship with mother
            • characteristics of the child
            • personality of the father
        • Belsky
          • fathers whos parents had divorced affect their investment
      • Shackleford found that grandmothers invest more
        • Pashos found similar results with uncles and aunts
    • non human species
      • chimpanzees males only invest in conception
      • suggests that human male investment has increased as we become more evolved
    • Geher et al
      • 91 non-parent undergraduates
      • took part in a parental investment perception scale
        • eg I believe im ready to raise a child
        • Males showed a greater heart rate increase when thinking about parenthood
        • men are biologically less prepared than females to deal with the issues of parenthood

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