Parental Investment

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By expending a large part of their reproductive effort on courtship & mating, males of most species can afford to devote rather little, in comparison to females, to parental care. Who says this?
Daly and Wilson
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Parental investment theory suggests that the sex that makes the ------ investment will be the more sexually discriminating.
Larger
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Parental investment theory suggests that the sex that makes the ------- investment will compete for access to the higher-investing sex.
Smaller
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The investment made by human females is considerably ------- than that made by males (e.g. the female produces far fewer eggs in her lifetime than the male produces sperm).
Greater
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Females can be ------- that they are the mother as they carry their child, whereas men can't always be sure they're the father.
Certain
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Brain size increased in response to adaptive pressures among distant ancestors which resulted in more difficult child birth due to an enlargement of the skull, to compensate for this babies are born --------- compared to other animals.
Immature
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Human females breastfeed their young & so are more --------- by this extended period of childcare. Mothers thus make greater prenatal contribution (pregnancy) & a larger postnatal contribution as well.
Burdened
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For female ancestors the minimum investment would've been a 9 month pregnancy followed by years of feeding & carrying. For men, however, it would've been a few moments of copulation & some semen. Who said this?
Symons
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Who said that indiscriminate mating could cost a woman a great deal in terms of time & resources, whereas indiscriminate mating tends to be much less costly for a man?
Goetz and Shackelford
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When males invest parentally (resources) they are under pressure to protect themselves from the possibility of --------- (investing in kids that aren't theirs).
Cuckoldry
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Who said because human males make a considerable investment in their children, they have greater concern than females about the fidelity of their mates?
Miller
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A man whose mate was unfaithful risked wasting resources on offspring that weren't his & a woman whose mate was unfaithful risked the diversion of resources from her family. Who said sexual jealousy evolved as a solution to these problems?
Buss
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Sexual jealousy - men are more ------- of the sexual act to avoid cuckoldry while women are more ------- of the shift in emotional focus to avoid the loss of resources.
Jealous
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The expense of childbearing means females want good quality kids so they don't waste effort. To do this is to marry a man who has resources & is caring, but shop around for good genes through ------- with 'studs' (attractive men with no resources).
Affairs
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Who conducted a survey of over 2700 UK women & from the results estimated that as many as 14% of the population were products of extramarital affairs?
Baker and Bellis
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Who said the benefits women could obtain by cuckoldry include receiving more support and better genes, but it is not without it's risks, such as the possibility of the abandonment by the current partner?
Daly and Wilson
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Who said that joint parental care is desirable due to the obvious benefits of successful reproduction & in any situation where males can increase the success of childrearing, it will pay them to do so?
Dunbar
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Research supports the claim that human males contribute to parenting by providing resources (e.g. food supply), & this investment allows the family to live in healthier environments, resulting in a decrease in infant/child mortality. Who found this?
Reid
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Who measured the resources invested by fathers & stepfathers and found that men appeared to not discriminate between stepchildren and their own biological children?
Anderson
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Who found male US students showed more concern about sexual infidelity & female students expressed more concern about emotional infidelity? When asked to imagine scenes of sexual/emotional infidelity men showed more distress for sexual than emotional
Buss et al
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Who found that men tended to respond with greater arousal to any sexual imagery, which challenges the view that sex differences in jealousy are an adaptive response in males and females?
Harris
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IDA - Who suggests that an explanation of parental investment based on evolutionary factors alone is severely limited? Men's parental behaviour depends on various personal and social conditions, such as the quality of the relationship with the mother
Rowe
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IDA - Who claims that childhood experiences (such as parental divorce) tend to correlate with the degree to which men invest in the upbringing and care of their own children?
Belsky
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IDA - Comparative analysis of parental investment in closely related species to humans (chimps) - males show little/no parental investment which suggests the emergence of male parenting in humans is a dramatic evolutionary change or -------- learning
Cultural
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Grandmothers also tend to invest ---- than grandfathers.
More
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Parental investment theory suggests that the sex that makes the ------ investment will be the more sexually discriminating.

Back

Larger

Card 3

Front

Parental investment theory suggests that the sex that makes the ------- investment will compete for access to the higher-investing sex.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The investment made by human females is considerably ------- than that made by males (e.g. the female produces far fewer eggs in her lifetime than the male produces sperm).

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Females can be ------- that they are the mother as they carry their child, whereas men can't always be sure they're the father.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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