P3 - Sustainable Energy

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  • P3 - Sustainable Energy
    • Electrical energy
      • Power =  how fast it transfers energy from the charge passing through it
        • Measured in watts (W) / kilowatts (KW)
      • Energy transferred(J)  = power (W) x time (S)
      • Kilowatt-hour = amount of energy converted by a 1KW appliance left on for 1 hour
        • Energy transferred (KW-H) = power(KW) x time(H)
      • Cost = no. of (KWH) x cost per (KW-H)
      • Appliances with a high power rating draws a large current
        • Power(W) = voltage(V) x current(A)
      • Efficiency = (energy usefully transferred  ----------- total energy supplied) x 100%
    • Saving energy
      • Buy efficient appliances
      • Installing insulation
      • Switching things off
      • Energy saving light bulbs
      • Double glazing
      • Effective = saving most money each year
        • Cost effective = depends on timescale
      • Cost effective = depends on timescale
    • Sankey diagrams
      • Efficiency of generation
        • electrical energy from generator      --------- energy input from coal
      • Efficiency of distribution
        • useful electrical energy output           --------- electrical energy from generator
      • Overall efficiency
        • useful electrical energy output            --------- energy input from coal
      • Efficiency
        • useful energy output           ------------ energy input
    • Nuclear energy
      • energy released  from nuclear fuel by nuclear fission
        • Heat energy heats water to make steam
          • Steam turns a turbine
            • Generator converts turbine movement into electricity
      • Irradiation - being exposed to radiation
      • Contamination - picking up radioactive waste
      • Release a lot of energy
      • Produces radioactive waste
    • Power stations
      • Fuel burned in a boiler & used to generate steam
        • Steam turns a turbine
          • Generator converts movement of turbines into electricity
    • Wind & solar energy
      • Solar
        • Initial costs are high but energy is free & no running costs
      • Wind
        • Spoil view
        • Very noisy
        • No power when the wind stops
    • Wave & tidal power
      • Wave
        • Waves directly turn turbines on the shore which drives a generator
        • Both drive turbines directly rather than making steam to drive turbines
      • Tidal
        • Tides come in and fill up estuary which drives turbines
        • Both drive turbines directly rather than making steam to drive turbines
    • Generators & the National Grid
      • Voltage & currents can be made in a conductor by moving a magnet in a coil of wire
        • Electromagnetic induction
        • As the magnet moves the magnetic field changes
          • Movement induces the voltage which causes a current to flow in the coil
            • Move magnet faster to increase voltage & current
      • National Grid
        • Network of pylons & cables that cover the whole of Britain

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