Opposition to the Nazi Regime 2

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  • Opposition
    • Opposition parties
      • All political parties but the Nazis had been banned, but some left-wing parties still continued some illegal activities
      • The SPD in exile (SOPADE) was based in Prague and organised some underground groups, such as the Berlin Red Patrol and the Hanover Socialist Front. They distributed leaflets and tried to start a whispering propaganda campaign.
      • The KPD formed underground cells
      • Previous leader of the Lubeck SPD, Julius Leber joined the Kreisau circle.
    • The Workers
      • There were estimated 400 strikes between 1933 and 1935
      • Many workers maintained their links with illegal political parties (e.g. SPD, KPD)
      • There were some 'no-go' areas for Nazi officials in some working-class districts of industrial cities
    • Judiciary
      • Some judges tried to maintain proper standards of justice despite the growing intervention of the SS and the special courts.
    • Government and Civil service
      • There were some initial critics within the government - e.g Papen in 1934 spoke out for greater freedom and in 1935 Schacht deplored anti-sematic violence
      • Some government offiials planned an alternative government and maintained contacts with other opponents
    • Youth
      • There were several opposition youth groups, such as the Swing Youth, the Edelweiss Pirates and the White Rose Group
    • The Army
      • Aristocratic army officers generally remained suspicious of Hitler and Nazism. Many feared Hitler was too radical in foreign policy. Several officers were involved in failed assassination attempts. Most notably in the July 1944 bomb plot. There was considerable opposition acitivty within the Abwer, the Germany military intelligence organisation
        • Headed by Admiral Canaris who tolerated resistence activities and helped Jews leave the war


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