Object Perception 

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  • Object Perception
    • Depth perception
      • 3D Perception
        • Experience with environment provides us with connections between depth and cues.
          • Oculomotor
            • When we focus on objects, we notice the position of our eyes and tension of eye muscles.
              • Allows us to determine depth
            • Convergence: Eyes move inwards when focussing on close objects
            • Accommodation: The way lens changes shape on objects at different distances
          • Monocular: Can detect depth with just one eye
            • Pictorial Cues
              • Occlusion:objects hidden by others are further away
              • Relative height: Above horizon lower objects further, below horizon, higher objects further.
              • Relative size: objects taking less of visual field appear further away.
              • Familiar size: Knowledge of the usual size of objects Known larger object must be further away than smaller object if they appear the same size.
              • Atmospheric perspective: Blurred objects further away.
              • Linear perspective: Parallel lines converge the further away
              • Texture gradient: more densely packed objects the further away
            • Movement cues
              • Motion parallax: near objects move past quicker than those further away
                • Motion Agnosia (Zihl et al. (1983)): Patient able to see objects but not movement.Brain scan revealed damage to cortex bordering occipital and temporal lobes.
              • Deletion/ accretion: Nearer object covers or displays object as you move past. Further away objects are, the slower the process.
                • Motion Agnosia (Zihl et al. (1983)): Patient able to see objects but not movement.Brain scan revealed damage to cortex bordering occipital and temporal lobes.
          • Binocular
            • Stereopsis (Wheatstone, 1802-1875)
            • Binocular Disparity: Light from an object reflects onto a specific region on the retina. Scene is viewed by eyes at different angles, so each get a different image. Measured by superimposing retinas onto each other. More disparate angle, the closer objects are to person.
              • Stationary object will move across retina if person is moving, but it takes more to determine if object is actually moving...
                • Object moves across retina without any detected movement of head, body or eyes.
                • Image is stationary but detected movement of head, body or eyes.
                • Movement of both, but not to the same degree and image does not match.
    • Gestalt psychology
      • Whole is the sum of its parts
        • Laws of perceptual organisation
          • 1. Pragnanz: Simplest pattern seen
          • 2. Good continuation: Aids object recognition. Clean continuous lines following smoothest path belong together
          • 3. Proximity: Grouping of physically close items
          • 4. Symmetry: Symmetrical items are associated to form single groups. This can overrule proximity.
          • 5. Similarity: Items that have a similar colour, shape or form are grouped together.
          • 6. Common Fate: Thing that move in the same direction are grouped
          • 7. Familiarity: Group meaningful/ familiar objects e.g. see faces in a camouflage picture. Impossible to not see them after.
          • 8. Conectedness: Rock & Palmer (1990) found things that are connected are viewed as one unit
      • Figure & Ground
        • Figure is in front of ground
        • Figure is more object-like than ground
        • Ground extends beyond figure
        • Figure is smaller than ground
          • Untitled
        • Ground is unformed material
        • Figure is more memorable
        • Separating contour belongs to figure
      • Reversible figure & ground
    • Illusory Movement
      • Stroboscopic movement: Objects flash into sight in quick succession to give the impression movement.
      • Movement after-effect: Continuous exposure to motion in the same direction results in appearance of motion in post stationary object.
      • Induced Movement: movement of one object produces the perception of movement in another.

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