Elizabeth I - Foreign Policy - The Netherlands 1570 - 1588

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Netherlands
    • Historiography
      • MacCaffrey: Not as successful as Wernham, but not as unsuccessful as Wilson. She was a reactionary leader.
        • As a reaction, Elizabeth created a formal alliance between England and the rebels by signing the Treaty of Nonsuch in 1585
          • Elizabeth paid for 6,400 infantry and 1000 cavalry to be taken to the Netherlands under the leadership of Leicester
            • The troops were ill-disciplined and alienated the Dutch
              • Two English officers deserted and joined the forces of Parma
                • English commanders quarrelled among themselves
                  • Leicester argued with the Dutch over taxes, religion, and trade - showing an insensitivity
                    • Leicester attempted a Coup d'Etat as relations had reached breaking point - he returned to England in 1588
                      • Netherlands
                        • Historiography
                          • MacCaffrey: Not as successful as Wernham, but not as unsuccessful as Wilson. She was a reactionary leader.
                            • As a reaction, Elizabeth created a formal alliance between England and the rebels by signing the Treaty of Nonsuch in 1585
                              • Elizabeth paid for 6,400 infantry and 1000 cavalry to be taken to the Netherlands under the leadership of Leicester
                                • The troops were ill-disciplined and alienated the Dutch
                                  • Two English officers deserted and joined the forces of Parma
                                    • English commanders quarrelled among themselves
                                      • Leicester argued with the Dutch over taxes, religion, and trade - showing an insensitivity
                                        • Leicester attempted a Coup d'Etat as relations had reached breaking point - he returned to England in 1588
                                • However, she would go on to try and broker a peace with Parma, showing she feared the Spanish and the possible results of her actions in the Netherlands
                            • Wernham: Consistent and successful policy in the Netherlands
                            • Wilson: Elizabeth's policies were inconsistent and unsuccessful
                            • Doran suggeststhat, by this point, Elizabeth's policy was in 'disarray' as she had alienated the Spanish without aiding the Dutch to any great extent
                          • 1572: Elizabeth expels William of Orange and the Sea beggars from English ports
                            • They move their ships and dock at Brielle - soon they revolt against the repressive policies and taxes enforced by the Duke of Alba
                              • Radical protestant Privy councillors urge Elizabeth to intervene, but she refuses. Instead she allows the rebels to recruit English soldiers to fight for them.
                                • In 1575, the Spanish launch an offensive to put down the uprisings.
                                  • 1576 - The 'Spanish Fury' sees the city of Antwerp plundered by Philip's troops
                                    • The provinces of the Netherlands call for the removal of all foreign troops in the 1576  Pacification of Ghent
                                      • The Spanish leave the Netherlands - a result that was perfectly in line with Elizabeth's goals, making her policy seem triumphant
                                        • However,in 1577 the uprisings restarted and the Spanish moved back in to the Netherlands
                                          • Intel suggested the French were going to join forces with the Spanish and so Elizabeth increased her backing of the rebels
                                            • She promised£100K to the Dutch Estates - General and would provide military support if the French invaded
                                            • She warned Philip that if he broke the terms of the 1576 Pacification of Ghent, she would support the rebels
                                              • However,to avoid direct war with Spain she hired a mercenary army to aid the rebels
                                                • Doran suggeststhat, by this point, Elizabeth's policy was in 'disarray' as she had alienated the Spanish without aiding the Dutch to any great extent
                                                • Religious divides between the rebels were echoed on a national scale as the Netherlands split in two
                                                  • The Union of Utrecht =  Northern and Protestant
                                                  • The Union of Arras = Spanish and Catholic
                                                    • The Spanish made peace with the Union of Arras, allowing the Duke of Parma to begin his reconquest of the Northern provinces
                                                      • From the 1580s, The situation in the Netherlands worsened
                                                        • Henry III, due to Catholic opposition to his reign, refused to join an anti-Spanish alliance
                                                        • The Duke of Anjou's Dutch campaign failed.
                                                        • The Duke of Parma's reconquest of the Northern provinces gained momentum.
                                                        • William of Orange was assassinated in 1584, leaving the rebels leaderless
                                                        • in 1584, the Treaty of Joinville joined the French Catholic League and the Spanish, isolating Elizabeth
                                                          • Philip II, now allied to the Guise family, had no political reasons stopping him from supporting Mary, Queen of Scots
                                                  • The Spanish made peace with the Union of Arras, allowing the Duke of Parma to begin his reconquest of the Northern provinces
                                                    • From the 1580s, The situation in the Netherlands worsened
                                                      • Henry III, due to Catholic opposition to his reign, refused to join an anti-Spanish alliance
                                                      • The Duke of Anjou's Dutch campaign failed.
                                                      • The Duke of Parma's reconquest of the Northern provinces gained momentum.
                                                      • William of Orange was assassinated in 1584, leaving the rebels leaderless
                                                      • in 1584, the Treaty of Joinville joined the French Catholic League and the Spanish, isolating Elizabeth
                                                        • Philip II, now allied to the Guise family, had no political reasons stopping him from supporting Mary, Queen of Scots
            • However, she would go on to try and broker a peace with Parma, showing she feared the Spanish and the possible results of her actions in the Netherlands
        • Wernham: Consistent and successful policy in the Netherlands
        • Wilson: Elizabeth's policies were inconsistent and unsuccessful
      • 1572: Elizabeth expels William of Orange and the Sea beggars from English ports
        • They move their ships and dock at Brielle - soon they revolt against the repressive policies and taxes enforced by the Duke of Alba
          • Radical protestant Privy councillors urge Elizabeth to intervene, but she refuses. Instead she allows the rebels to recruit English soldiers to fight for them.
            • In 1575, the Spanish launch an offensive to put down the uprisings.
              • 1576 - The 'Spanish Fury' sees the city of Antwerp plundered by Philip's troops
                • The provinces of the Netherlands call for the removal of all foreign troops in the 1576  Pacification of Ghent
                  • The Spanish leave the Netherlands - a result that was perfectly in line with Elizabeth's goals, making her policy seem triumphant
                    • However,in 1577 the uprisings restarted and the Spanish moved back in to the Netherlands
                      • Intel suggested the French were going to join forces with the Spanish and so Elizabeth increased her backing of the rebels
                        • She promised£100K to the Dutch Estates - General and would provide military support if the French invaded
                        • She warned Philip that if he broke the terms of the 1576 Pacification of Ghent, she would support the rebels
                          • However,to avoid direct war with Spain she hired a mercenary army to aid the rebels
                            • Religious divides between the rebels were echoed on a national scale as the Netherlands split in two
                              • The Union of Utrecht =  Northern and Protestant
                              • The Union of Arras = Spanish and Catholic

      Comments

      No comments have yet been made

      Similar History resources:

      See all History resources »See all British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts resources »