nature of government

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  • Nature of Government
    • Ideology
      • Alexander II (1855 - 81)
        • Stuck to autocratic principles
        • Willing reformer
      • Alexander III (1881 - 94)
        • Intense authoritarian rule
        • 'The Reaction' - response against his Fathers reformation period
      • Nicholas II (1891- 1917)
        • Severe form of Autocracy
          • Fundamental laws 1906 displayed need for the preservation of autocracy
      • Lenin (1917-1924)
        • Marxism - Leninism
          • Creation of an egalitarian society
          • 'Labour Theory of Value'
            • Dictatorship of the proletariat
        • Passed on his views through writing
        • Wanted to create 'socialism in one country'
      • Stalin (1924-1953)
        • Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism
          • Implemented a  command economy
          • Personalised the super -structure so he had full control
        • Totalitarianism
      • Khrushchev  (1955 - 1964)
        • De-Stalinsation
        • Authoritarian
      • PG
        • Democracy
          • hold elections, create a democratic society like the west
            • BUT......... most members of the Pg were previous members of the progressive Bloc, from the 4th duma, continuity from the Tsarist regime.
            • only planned for elections, released political prisoners, stopped secret police
    • Systems
      • Tsars
        • All used the Council of Ministers, the Imperial Council of State, a Committee of Ministers and the Senate
        • Nicholas II's October manifesto established a Duma (an elected urban council) and a State council
          • Fundamental Laws restricted Duma's control
        • Alexander II introduced the Zemstva - an elected rural council
          • Both councils abolished in 1917
            • Nicholas II's October manifesto established a Duma (an elected urban council) and a State council
              • Fundamental Laws restricted Duma's control
        • Alexander II introduced a jury system, a hierarchy of courts to deal with crimes and a new department of the Senate to try political cases
        • Alexander III centralised the police, designed special courts for political cases and assigned land captains
      • Communists
        • All used the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Central Executive Committee and Council of People's Comissars
        • Stalin implemented his 1936 Constitution introducing the USSR, the Soviet of the Union and Soviet of Nationalities
        • By 1917, the Soviet council was officially the Petrograd Soviet of Worker's Deputies
          • The Bolsheviks began to dominate the executive Committe
        • New criminal code in 1921 legalised use of terror to deter crime
    • Methods
      • Reform
        • Alexander II promoted railway construction and supported Witte's 'Great Spurt'
        • Lenin's War Communism and NEP
        • Alexander II Emancipation of the Serfs
        • Stolypin's wager on the strong (1906-11)
        • Stalin's Collectivisation and 5 year plans
        • Kruschev's Virgin Lands Scheme
      • Repression
        • Secret police
          • Alexander II, Alexander III and Nicholas II all used the Okhrana
            • Targeted specific individuals and small groups
          • Lenin estblished Cheka - enforced war communism and red teror
          • Stalin introduced NKVD in 1934 - was relentless and enforced show trials and purges
          • Kruschev established MVD for ordinary criminal acts and the KGB for security
        • The army
          • The MRC merged with Red Guard under Bolsheviks to create the Red Army
          • Stalin continued to use the Red Army
        • Propaganda
          • Nicholas II used pamphlets portraits and events
            • 'The tercentenary celebrations of 300 years of Romanov Rule' 1913
          • Lenin's 'Peace, Land and Bread' campaign
          • Stalin's Cult of Personality
        • Censorship
          • Alexander II eased censorship eg new law that editors no longer needed to get prior approval
          • Stalin was restrictive, 1932: all literary groups closed
          • Alexander III increased Censorhip to limit harmful ideas in circulation
          • Lenin abolished Press Freedom to suppress counter revolutionaries
          • Censorship was eased under Khrushchev, 1950's - 65,000 books were published yearly

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