The nature of dual power

  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 23-05-20 10:58
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  • The nature of dual power
    • Nicholas II's abdication named his uncle Grand Duke Mikhail the new Tsar.
      • Milyukov and right-wing members of the Kadets welcomed this outcome.
        • However, the workers of Petrograd refused to support a constitutional monarchy.
      • Grand Duke Mikhail adbicated on 3rd March 1917.
        • This decisively ended the power of the Romanovs.
      • However, the Feb Revolution had failed to establish a legitimate new government.
        • Rather, the overthrow of Tsarism led to a situation which Trotsky called Dual Power.
    • Dual Power
      • Dual power was not a formal constitutional relationship.
        • Indeed, the relationship between the two institutions changed over time.
      • The Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government had different kinds of authority.
        • They also saw themseleves as having different roles:
          • Provisional Government claimed to be the sole legal government of Russia.
            • However, its role was to govern temporarily.
              • Until a new constitution could be established by a democraticaly elected Constituent Assembly.
          • Petrograd Soviet was a democraticaly elected body representing the working people and soldiers in Petrograd.
            • The Soviet didn't claim to govern Russia.
              • Nonetheless, it had the support of the vast majority of the capital's workers and soldiers.
                • Therefore, it could control the local garrisons, the factories and the railways of Petrograd.
                  • In this sense, it was more powerful than the Provisional Government.
    • The political complexion of the Provisional Government
      • The 1st Political Government was dominated by the former members of the Progressive Bloc.
        • Prince Lvov, the head of the Zemgor, was head of the First Provisional Government.
        • Milyukov and other leading Kadets played leading roles.
        • The government also included Alexander Kerensky, a socialist who had been elected to the 4th Duma.
    • The Power of the Provisional Government
      • The PG could not rely on the support of the army due to Societ Order Number 1.
        • Without the overwhelming military power the PG was dependant on the Soviet to ensure that its measures were carried out.
    • Support for the Provisional Government
      • The PG had a difficult relationship with the people of Petrograd.
        • Early Support
          • The threat of further rebelions forced the new government to guarantee basic rights including:
            • - Freedom of expression and assembly
            • - Freedom of conscience
            • - Universal sufferage for all adults.
            • - Equal rights for minorities.
            • These measures, which were introduced in early March, won over the majority of the working people of Petrograd.
        • The role of Radical Parties
          • During March, the Mensheviks, SRs and even the Bolsheviks offered a degree of support for the new government.
            • Radical parties agreed that Russia needed a period of parliamentary democracy and capitalism before a truly socialist revolution.
        • Support from the Soviet
          • In March and April the PG and the Soviet were in agreement over major issues.
            • Importantly, leading members of both institutions favoured 'revolutionary defencism'.
              • This was the policy of continuing to fight WW1 in order to defend the rebellion.
              • Therefore the 2 organisations were able to collaborate successfully.


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