Nationalism pt 3

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  • Nationalism
    • Society
      • Civic nationalism - the claim that national identity is less important than the people's pride in the political institutions of the state. These political values are associated with liberal ideals such as rights and liberties e.g USA. Has become an issue in modern states that have experienced immigration e.g France and Germany, immigrant groups are encouraged to learn and support national civic values, Can only gain citizenship through passing a test
      • Liberal internationalism - Liberal democratic form of state is intrinsically desirable and is to be promoted wherever possible even through intervention. The most successful way of establishing and protecting liberal democratic values is through international cooperation e.g EU, in order to qualify for membership applicant states must demonstrate that their political systems are truly democratic and human rights are respected. Liberal internationalists insist that states who do not conform to liberal principles are not members of the international community of nations
      • Socialist internationalism - Fundamentalist socialists see class consciousness as a vehicle for collectivist action. Religion,ideology, nationalism etc are merely reflections of capitalist domination and oppression. They are means that inhibit people. "The working men have no country" - Marx and Engels
      • Jean-Jacque Rousseau - Society must be based on political self-determination
      • Johann Von Herder - Society is socially constructed by people who share a national heritage
      • Guiseppe Mazzini - Freedom and liberty must flourish within society
      • Charles Maurras - Society is based on shared ethnicity and some societies are superior to others
      • Marcus Garvey - A black society will be free of white suppression, allowing the black race to thrive
      • CIvic nationalism seeks o create a new form of national identity which doesn't exist as a result of shared history while liberal and socialist internationalism see the promotion of their aims lying in international cooperation rather than separating world into nations
      • - Society is defined in terms of ethnic or cultural traits. Held together and identified by widely held ideas and beliefs. Multi-cultural societies are unstable and can't unify and work towards a common goal
    • Economy
      • There is no intrinsic link between economic ideas and nationalism. Nationalism survived communist totalitarianism in Russia under Stalin, coexisted with communism in Cuba and China as well as living comfortably with capitalism
      • Socialist nationalism - Contrasts socialist internationalism and seeks to synthesise nationalism socialism. Has thrived in Africa, where Julius Nyerere in Tanzania, Kenneth Kaunda in Zambia and Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe sought ti establish socialism in their countries to combat international capitalist imperalism. Creating a collectivist economic system unites people whose sense of national identity was weak e.g Fidel Castro 1959 Cuban revolution wanted to create national pride around country's colonial history and 'superior' values of socialism e.g North Korea
      • Nativism and protectionism - Refers to the belief that indigenous or original population has superior claim to nationality than groups who arrived ore recently e.g original settler Americans were favoured over Hispanics in USA, original nationals over Arab immigrants in France and white English over European migrants in the UK. They should have first claim to employment and to social benefits. Domestic industries should be protected from international competition through trade barriers. Immigration should be controlled to protect the native culture
        • Nativism is an ultra-conservative regressive form of nationalism which looks back to an age where native national group and its culture were dominant. Seeks to halt the progression of globalisation
          • - President Trump and his derogatory comments to Muslims and Mexicans, building a wall and tariffs with China and EU
      • Jean- Jacque Rousseau - Did not make a specific connection between nation and economy
      • Johann Von Herder - Did not make a special connection between nation and economy
      • Guiseppe Mazzini - Economic freedom is a consequence of societal freedom
      • Charles Maurras - Hierarchy of states and societies leads to economic dominance of stronger nations over weaker ones
      • Marcus Garvey - Black state would lead to a capitalism that benefits its people and combat the economic dominance of international capitalism which has underpinned economic imperialism
      • - Nationalists on the extreme have willingly used economic planning to command the economy in terms of production. Conservatives are skeptical of large organisations with international character. Expansionists support economic self-sufficiency


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