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  • Mutations
    • Changes to DNA
      • Involve change in DNA base sequence of chromosomes
      • Substitution- one base substituted with another
      • Deletion- one base is deleted
      • Order of DNA bases determines order of amino acids in particular protein
      • If a mutation occurs, sequence of amino acid could be altered and therefore the protein
    • Order of amino acids
      • Degenerate nature of genetic code means some amino acids are coded for by more than one triplet
      • Not all substitutions will change amino acid sequence- some will still code for same amino acid
      • Deletions always lead to change in amino acid
      • Deletion changes number of bases present which will cause a shift in all base triplets after it
    • Mutagenic agents
      • Increase rate of mutation
      • Mutations occur spontaneously e.g. when DNA misread during replication
      • UV radiation, ionising radiation, some chemicals and some viruses are mutagenic agents


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