Red are examples, Yellow are quotations - hope it all makes sense and apologies for the can't be helped

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  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 06-05-13 18:45
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  • Core Values of Multiculturalism
    • Postcolonialism
      • Challenged a predominantly Eurocentric world view: gave developing world a voice against western ideologies (such as liberalism)
        • Allowed non-western religions, ideas and philosophies to be taken more seriously
        • Rejecting Eurocentrism means getting rid of stereotypes of the 'superior' European cultures
      • Highlighted  the political importance of culture by viewing the 'imposed' culture as oppressive: rediscover their 'native' culture
      • FRANZ FANON: emphasised links between anti-colonial struggle and violence. Studied a psycho-political regeneration, where a new 'species' is created via decolonisation
    • Minority Rights
      • 'Special' rights because they are specific to the groups to which they belong, as each minority has different developing needs depending on the character of its religion
        • May also be specifically set out to advantage certain groups over other groups, thus addressing social injustice
          • Multiculturalists believe in right to not be offended: protests against Rushdie's 'The Satanic Verse'
      • Drawbacks: argued that giving rights to separate groups = stopping integration into larger society. Encourage 'positive discrimination' as a result. Also contradicts liberal right of freedom of expression.
      • Dichotomy: cultural belonging is chosen: infringes individual rights as do not choose: is based on where come from
      • Limit: Also limited as specifically sets out to advantage certain groups over others: multicult is supposed to recognise formal equality
    • Identity and Culture
      • A form of identity politics which seeks to advantage interests of societal groups: strengthens members awareness of collective identity and common experiences
      • We are defined by our culture
      • Communitarian thinkers: Macintyre, Sandel --- criticise liberal individualism because viewed as cause of atomism
      • Culture favoured over nature: security and identity becomes rooted in culture so pride in culture - sense of social and historical grounding
      • Ethnicity
        • Gives people a common identity, linked by blood (ancestor based). Loyalty towards particular population, cultural group or area: Values, traditions, Practises
      • Religion
        • important to non-Western groups particularly
          • Can become defining feature for cultural identity: Muslim groups in non-Western societies
      • Language
        • Shapes understandin and keeps traditional myths and legends alive
      • Dichotomy: Particularism (MOSAIC) versus Universalism (MELTING POT) - individual focus on society or collective
    • Dual Culture
      • People can have multiple identities and loyalties
      • Diversity is antidote to social polarisation and prejudice - creates unity
      • Cultural exchange = varied lifestyle and traditions
      • Use biodiversity as analogy - selecting the best of cultures and eliminating worse to form a 'super culture'
        • Waldron: 'Pick  'n' Mix'
      • Believe society is better if more diverse
      • PROBLEM: cultural exchange can casue blurring of individual identity.
  • Self-government rights
    • Should involve devolution of political powers to political units that are controlled by members of minorities.


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