Molecular Biology

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  • Molecular Biology
    • Mobile Genetic Elements
      • Transformation
        • Transfer of naked DNA
          • Integrated to chromosome by homologous recombination
        • May transfer plasmid, non-conjugative
        • Recpieint cells are competent
        • Used to transform bacteria for DNA cloning experiments
      • Transduction
        • Phage mediated transfer
          • Diptheria toxin
          • Cholera toxin
      • Conjugation
    • Genes and Evolution
      • Transient Changes
        • Gene expression
        • Inducible/Repressible genes
          • e.g. Phase switching in Salmonella
      • transpositions
        • Plastic genomes
          • Mobile elements
          • DNA re-arrangements
          • Transformation with foreign DNA
      • Base changes
        • Point mutation
          • Frameshift
          • Accumulate over time
            • Basis of 16S PCR for taxonomic ID
      • Mutations
        • Lethal mutation
        • Silent mutation
        • Altered function
          • Tradeoff
    • Taxonomy
      • Phenotypic
        • Morphology
        • GRAM
        • Biochemical Test
        • MALDI-TOF
        • Fatty acid methyl ester analysis
          • fatty acid constitutuents of peptidoglycan wall
          • Polar glycolipid analysis (2D GE)
      • Genotypic
        • 16S Phylogenetics
        • Multi-locus sequence typing
        • Whole genome sequencing
        • Simple methods
          • %GC Content
            • Thermal denaturation of DNA
          • DNA methylation content
          • DNA:DNA hybridisation probes
          • Direct target PCR
    • Bacterial Typing
      • Clonal complexes
        • MLST analysis
        • SNP Analysis
          • Only interpretable if basal rate of change is known
        • Variable nucleotide terminal repeats VNTR
        • Organisms
          • E.coli ST131
            • Commonest CC
            • Major cause of bacteraemia
            • Many carry extended spectrum beta lactamases
              • NDM-1
              • CTX-M
              • SHV
              • TEM
          • Pseudomonas PA14
  • Plasmids
    • Type F Pili
    • Conjugation
    • Recombination
      • Transposable elements
        • Transposons
          • Tn3 (Simple transposon)
          • Tn10 (Complex transposon)
        • Integrons
          • Integrase
          • Contains a gene cassette
          • oxa (b-lactamase)
          • aac (aminoglycocide)
    • Conjugative and Non-conjugative
      • May pick up and transfer chromosomal genes

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