Methodology issues PK & Ganzfeld

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  • Methodology Issues relating to PK & Ganzfeld Techniques
    • Poor Control
      • PK: Lack of randomisation of the target. For example a target of 6,6,6,6. This could make it easier to get the sequence, affecting the results of the study.
        • Eval: Hansel - found that studies for PK which had less control showed more supporting evidence for PK ability. This indicates that a lack of control may be  responsible for affecting results.
          • Improvements: To avoid poor control having an impact on results, you could use an automated protocol. This would mean that the entire study would be run by a computer, so sould be effectively controlled.
      • ESP: Sensory leakage to the participant could be a problem when using the ganzfeld technique. This is because the researcher may be tipping them off as to if they are correct. This may lead to the p's appearing to has ESP when they do not.
        • Eval: Hansel - found that studies for PK which had less control showed more supporting evidence for PK ability. This indicates that a lack of control may be  responsible for affecting results.
          • Improvements: To avoid poor control having an impact on results, you could use an automated protocol. This would mean that the entire study would be run by a computer, so sould be effectively controlled.
    • Researcher Bias
      • PK & ESP: The Sheep/Goat effect could have an effect on the results. This is because based on the beliefs of the researcher, the participant may feel more or less encourage to try, affecting their motivation to do well.
        • Eval: Woolfitt - Sheep (believer) researchers found  higher levels of psychic ability than goat (non-believer)  researcher.  This suggests that if a researcher wants the results to support the idea then are more likely to.
          • Improvements: Double blind studies can be used to avoid researcher bias. This would mean that the researcher and participants do not know which condition the p's are in, so the researcher cannot be biased towards a certain condition.

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