Metals and their uses part 2

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  • Metals and their uses 2
    • Iron is extracted by reduction in a blast furnace.
      • Contains about 96% iron. its impurities  make it strong and brittle = limited uses
    • Most iron is converted into steels.
      • Steels are alloys - they are mixtures of iron with carbon.
      • Some steels contain other metals.
      • Alloys can be designed to have properties for specific uses.
        • Low carbon steel (0.4% carbon) = very easily shape
        • High carbon steels (1-1.5% carbon) = very strong
        • Stainless steels (iron + chromium) are resistant to corrosion
    • Most metals in everyday use are alloys.
      • Pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium - too soft for many uses. So are made into alloys to make them harder for everyday use
    • Transition metals are good conductors of heat and electricity and can be bent or hammered into shape.
    • Copper has properties that make it useful for electrical wiring and plumbing.  
      • Is a good conductor of electricity and heat
      • Can be bent but is hard enough to be used to make pipes or tanks
      • Does not react with water.
    • Aluminium and titanium have a low density and are resistant to corrosion= useful


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