psychology memory

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  • Created by: mmcbride
  • Created on: 18-03-15 10:32
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  • Memory
    • Duration
      • Sheperd
        • 612 pictures
        • tested: 1 hour/4 months
      • Peterson and Peterson
        • 3-18 seconds
        • Trigrams
        • Found that the longer the interval, less of trigram remembered
      • Bahrick
        • School yearbook photos
          • 48 Years later
          • 70% remembered accurately
    • Working memory model
      • Baddeley + Hitch
      • Phonological loop, episodic buffer, visuo-spatial sketchpad and central excutive
        • - it doesnt go into deatil of the key component
        • + because it explains dual task studies
        • Phonological loop developed in 1986, split into 2 sections: articulatory process and phonological store
        • Episodic buffer added in 200, general store. Visuo -spatial sketchpad allows you to imagine what things look like. Central executiv, directs attention to tasks
    • Encoding
      • Baddeley
        • STM  relies heavily on acoustic coding
        • LTM relies on semantic coding
          • Songs are encoded acoustically even though its LTM
      • Conrad
        • Letters can be encoded by sound even when presented visually
    • Multistore model
      • Atkinson and Shriffin
        • 3 main senses: iconic, echoic and haptic
      • Sensory memory (attention), STM(rehearsal ) + LTM (relaborate rehearsal / retrieval)
      • - it doesnt go into enough detail
      • + LTM is in the hippocampus and STM in the prefrontal coretex
    • Capacity
      • Miller
        • 7 + / -2
      • Jacobs
        • Digit span technique
          • Digits average of 9.3, letters average of 7.3
      • Simon/Cowan
        • size of chunk matters, limited to 4 chunks
      • Baddeley found chunking was effiecient
    • Memory improvement strategies
      • Visual mnemonics: acronyms, acrostic peoms, rhyme and chunking
        • Oragnisaion helps (Bower) + dual coding hypothesis (Pavio)
      • Visual mnemonics: loci, key words and spider diagrams
        • Key word good, Russian language, Atkinson
          • Limited (link to key word) Slavin found it hasnt been effective in helping students actually speaking foregin language
    • Anxiety
      • Deffenbacher
        • Meta anlysis. 18 studies
          • Anxiety causes poor recall
      • Christianson + Hubinette
        • questioned 58 real bank robbery eyewitnesses
        • Found eyewitnesses who were threatened by gun were more accurate even 15 months after
      • Johnson + Scott
        • Weapon effect
          • Experiment: a man pen, grease, discussion. a man, knife, blood, arguement.
            • Anxiety levels became too high, recall worse. condition 1 49% accurate. condition 2, 33%
    • Misleading questions
      • Loftus + Palmer
        • 45 people, video of car crashes
          • Change of verbs
          • Participants answers would change
      • Yuille + Cutshell
        • 13 people, 4 months after robbery, 2 misleaading questions, accurate recall
      • Wells + Olsen, gender, no noticeable difference
    • Age
      • Memon et al
        • (16-33) + (60-82) eyewitnesses
          • Short delay between accident and identification, no difference
          • identification process delayed, older eyewitnesses less accurate
      • Yarmey
        • woman, 15 seconds, 651 people
          • young and middle aged confiident, elderly not confident
      • Parker and Carranza
        • Crime scene iimages + identification, children + college students
          • Children more confident, less accurate
    • Cognitive interview
      • Fisher + Geiselman
        • 4 Sections: recall everything, different perspective, act it out and reverse order
        • Time consuming, expensive but helps older people to recall

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