Psychology Memory

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  • Memory
    • Designs
      • Independent Groups Design
        • Involves different participants in each condition.
      • Repeated Measures Design
        • Every participant does all conditions, so participants are used as their own controls.
      • Matched Pairs Design
        • Match each participant in one condition as closely as possible with a participant in the other condition, on variables considered relevant to experiment.
    • Samples
      • Random Sampling
        • Every person/item has an equal chance of being selected. Researcher can identify everyone in target population before sample selection takes place. Selection is completely unbiased.
      • Opportunity Sampling
        • Reseacher selects anyone who is available to take part from any given population. AKA convenience sample.
      • Volunteer Sampling
        • Individuals volunteer to take part in a study
          • e.g. responding to an advert
    • Lab experiements
      • Advantages
        • Replicability of Procedures
          • Can be repeated by other researchers and similar results are obtained.
        • Sophisticated Measuring and Recording Equipment
          • Used easily compared to other settings.
        • Control over Variables
          • Control potential confounding variables, so high levels of precision. Variables controlled or eliminated, establishing a cause-and-effect relationship.
      • Disadvantages
        • Loss of Validity
          • By high control, situation becomes artificial. Human behaviour is complex and affected by internal factors.
          • Ecological Validity
            • Results are generalised outside the lab.
              • e.g. word lists are used in memory experiments but rarely learned in everyday life.
        • Demand Characteristics
          • Participants adjust behaviours accordingly. Threatens validity. Participants may respond to subtle cues from investigator. May behave to help or confound results.
    • Standard Deviation
      • Used to measure variability of a given sample of scores from its mean. Most powerful in measures of dispersion available to researcher.
    • Hypothesis
      • A testable statement
      • Null Hypothesis
        • Predicts no differences between the results from different conditions in an experiment. It predicts no correlation. Any correlations is found due to chance.
      • Alternative Hypothesis
        • Directional
          • DOES predict the direction of the results of an experiment.
    • STM
      • Encoding
        • Acoustically
      • Capacity
        • 7+/-2 items
      • Duration
        • 30 seconds
    • Method of Loci
      • Identify a set of familiar places that you can imagine walking through. (e.g. 15 locations in your house)
        • The number of places depends on the number of items to be remembered.
          • Convert each item into an image and place mentally in location. (e.g. shopping list: loaf of bread at doorstep, smashed eggs on hall floor, bacon on kitchen tables, etc.)
            • When ready to recall list imagine walking through locations and recall items.
    • Working Memory
      • Central Executive
        • Controls attention and slave systems
        • Most important component.
        • Major role in planning, problem-solving and decision making.
        • Flexible, process information from any modality.
        • Limited storage capacity.
      • Visuo-spatial scratch pad
        • Storage for spatial and visual information. The 'inner eye'.
        • Sets up and manipulates mental images.
        • Limited capacity.
      • Phonological Loop
        • 1. Articulatory control system for verbal rehearsal.
          • The 'inner voice'.
          • Allows subvocal repetition. Prevented by 'articulatory suppression'.
        • 2. Phonological store for acoustic information.
          • The 'inner ear'.
    • LTM
      • Capacity
        • Unlimited
      • Duration
        • Lifetime
      • Encoding
        • Semantically

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