Psychology- Memory

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  • Memory
    • Models of Memory
      • The Working Memory Model
        • VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD
          • Deals with info by VISUALLY ORGANISING it and it concerned with PATTERN RECOGNITION and PERCEPTION of movement
          • "THE INNER VOICE"
          • A "SLAVE SYSTEM"
        • PHONOLOGICAL LOOP
          • PHONOLOGICAL STORE
            • Hold the WORDS THAT YOU HEAR
            • The "INNER EAR"
          • ARTICULATORY CONTROL PROCESS
            • Is the VERBAL REHEARSAL system
            • The "INNER VOICE"
          • Limited capacity- temporary information store
          • Can hold the amount of information that you can say in 2 seconds
          • An AUDITORY STORE, processing and rehearsing SOUND-BASED information to prevent decay.
        • CENTRAL EXECUTIVE
          • Plays a supervisory role
            • Its' job is to direct attention to the most important information.
            • It controls the two slave systems and makes decisions when attention needs to be divided.
      • Multi-store Model
        • Three DISTINCT and SEPARATE store
          • SENSORY STORE
            • Held as RAW DATA (Sensory Specific)
            • Unlimited capacity
            • Duration of 0.5 seconds
            • Info lost by DECAY
          • SHORT TERM MEMORY
            • Duration of 15-20 seconds
            • Remembered by CHUNKING in 5-9 chunks
            • Mainly stored ACOUSTICALLY
            • Info lost by DECAY or displacment
          • LONG TERM MEMORY
            • Can last a LIFETIME
            • Potentially unlimited capacity though information can decay
            • Mainly stored SEMANTICALLY
            • Info lost by DECAY, INTERFERENCE or RETRIEVAL FAILURE
          • Processes needed for information to transfer between stores
            • REHEARSAL
            • ATTENTION
      • Memory Facts
        • Encoding: Transferring information from a sensory form into a form which can be processed.
          • Echoic (Things we hear)
          • Iconic store (Things we see)
          • Semantic (Something that has meaning or can be applied to something in the right context)
          • Haptic (Tactile= how something feels)
        • Recall/ Retrieval/ Recognition: Matching what you remember to what you are seeing
          • CUED RECALL: Remembering  information with a cue/ prompt (any order.)
          • FREE RECALL: When you can recall information at any point/ order- no prompt.
          • SERIAL RECALL: Remembering with no prompt and in the correct order.
        • STORAGE: How you retain/ store the information until you need it
    • Memory in everyday life
      • Eyewitness Testimony
        • SCHEMA
          • AN ORGANISED PACKAGE OF INFORMATION CONTAINING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE WORLD FROM PAST EXPERIENCES
          • Unconsciously fills in the gaps in your memory
        • Factors that can affect EWT:
          • MISLEADING INFORMATION
            • A LEADING QUESTION: "A question phrased in such a way as to suggest or prompt a particular response
          • ANXIETY
            • A certain amount of anxiety heightens arousal and makes us take notice, but too much may mean we are unable to concentrate and encode the details.
            • Events with a weapon show that recall is lower when with a gun/ something else which is dangerous to the witness
            • Higher anxiety level in real life situations- lab experiments may show different results
          • AGE OF WITNESS
            • Children more likely to be mislead by a misleading question than older people
            • Older people (elderly) may have poorer memory recall
            • A while after the event has happened children's memory recall is very low so info decays quicker
            • Children more likely to recall inaccurate information and confuse similar memories.
            • Better at identifying people if they were their own age.
        • HOW TO IMPROVE THE ACCURACY?
          • COGNITIVE INTERVIEW
            • Report all details even if they seem irrelevant
            • Try to mentally recreate the setting and the situation (weather, environment, your feelings)
            • Try to picture it and recreate it from different views
            • Recall it in a different chronological order (e.g. backwards)
          • Encourage witness to relax
          • Adapt questions to suit understanding of the individual witness
          • Offer comments to help clarify sutuation
      • Strategies for memory improvement
        • Verbal Mnemonics
          • Acrostic
            • Richard Of York Gave Battle in Vain
          • Rhymes
        • Visual Mnemonics
          • Depends on visual imagery, e.g. conjuring up a mental picture
            • An example of this is the "peg-word system", where you 'hang' the items you have to remember on the rhythming couplets
            • The loci method uses places instead of pegs
          • Mindmaps
        • Providing Cues
          • Suggests that, for info that has been stored, cues will aid retrieval. Cues are most effective if they are encoded at the same time as the items to be learnt
          • 2 TYPES OF CUE:
            • INTERNAL CUE: State depenent learning
            • EXTERNAL CUE: Contextual or environmental dependent learning
        • Organisation
          • Provides a way of encoding more complex info than word lists in a way that promotes recall (the info can be found more easily)
          • Organisation establishes links which help recall
            • Mind maps, hierarchies, word association and imagery create links or associations which provide  number of different routes to the information= better recall
            • The brain creates these links automatically, but mnemonics and other devices accelerate the process
              • Mind maps, hierarchies, word association and imagery create links or associations which provide  number of different routes to the information= better recall
            • Can be to existing memories to ensure new info is encoded in a systematic way and/or they link new info together so that recall of one item is likely to lead to recall of another
        • Processing and elaboration
          • 3 Levels of processing:
            • 2. Phonetic processing: Using the sound of a word
            • 1. Structural (shallow) processing: using physical characteristics of a word
            • 3. Semantic (deep) processing: using the meaning of a word
          • As well as providing cues, organising the material may mean that we are processing the information at a deeper level.
          • How long we remember the info for depends on the level at which the info is processed
            • Encoding is the most important process in memory.
              • The deeper the info is encoded, (the more deeply we process it), the more likely it is to be recaled later
            • The rate at which info is forgotten depends on the level of processing achieved
  • Recall/ Retrieval/ Recognition: Matching what you remember to what you are seeing
    • CUED RECALL: Remembering  information with a cue/ prompt (any order.)
    • FREE RECALL: When you can recall information at any point/ order- no prompt.
    • SERIAL RECALL: Remembering with no prompt and in the correct order.

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