A level - Memory

  • Created by: Make7M
  • Created on: 03-06-18 13:50
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  • Memory
    • System in which the mind stores and remembers information
    • Research into
      • Coding
        • Baddeley (1966) coding of STM and LTM
          • Gave different list of words to 4 groups of participants to remember
            • 1. acoustically (sound) similar 2.acoustically different 3.semantically (mean) similar 4.semantically different
              • Participants were either asked to recall the words immediately (STM, did worse with acoustically similar words) or after 20 min (LTM, did worse with semantically similar words)
                • Found STM codes acoustically, and LTM codes semantically
          • Not always true that STM coded semantically
            • Frost (1972) found LT recall was related to visual and semantic categories
              • Nelson and Rothbart (1972) found evidence of acoustic coding in LTM
                • Meaning that coding can vary according to circumstances
      • Capacity
        • Jacobs (1887) of STM
          • Asked participants to recall digits in the correct order aloud, if they get the number correct, they are asked to recall a number 1 digit longer, determining the individuals digit span
            • Found mean span for digits 9.3, and for letters 7.3
        • Miller
          • Made observations of everyday practice, noticed that things come in 7 sevens, suggested capacity of STM is 7 (±2)
            • Found people can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters, by chunking
          • Cownan (2001) criticised findings into capacity of STM, as he found that it is limited to about 4 chunks
            • Shows capacity for visual information (rather than verbal) meaning that lower end of Millers range is more appropriate 5
      • Duration
        • Peterson and Peterson STM
          • Asked 24 psychology students to recall trigrams (3 consonant syllables) whilst asked to count backwards in 3's from a random number, to prevent rehearsal
            • Recalled 80% of trigrams after 3 sec delay, 10% after 18 sec
          • Asked to count backwards to prevent rehearsal
            • Reitman (1974) used auditory tones rather than numbers, found duration was longer
              • Meaning forgetting was due to the numbers being overwritten, rather than decaying over time, therefore lacks internal validity
        • Bahrick (1975) LTM
          • Tested almost 400 participants aged 17-74 on: free recall test (remember names of people in graduate class), photo recognition test (of 50 photos), name recognition test (of ex-school friends)
            • Found those tested within 15 years of graduation were 90% accurate for names and faces, whilst after 48 years 80% names, 70% faces
              • Found free recall was worse, after 15 years it was 60%, and 30% after 47 years
    • Models
      • Structure of memory, in simpler form, in way it can be understood
      • MSM
        • By Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) viewed memory as a 'flow of information' through 'series of unitary stores'
        • Sensory
          • STM
            • LTM
              • Retrieval
            • Maintenance rehearsal
            • Forgetting
            • Pro-longed rehearsal
          • From the environment
          • Sensory registers Iconic (visually) and Echoic (auditory), both high capacity, >0.5 sec duration
          • Forgetting
          • Attention
        • Evaluation
          • Supported by studies, that STM and LTM are different
            • Coded differently, shows they are separate in the way they code inforamtion
          • States stores are unitary, however evidence from patients suffering with amnesia shows this is not true
            • KF suffered brain damage from a motorcycle accident affecting STM, mainly verbal not visual information
              • Meaning that the MSM is too simplistic
          • Evidence against LTM being a unitary store
            • Reasearch suggests we have  a different LTM store for facts about the world and learnt skills
              • Meaning LTM store is too simplistic
      • WMM
        • By Baddeley and Hitch (1974) interested in explaining STM, as MSM was criticised for being too simplistic
        • Refers to part of mind that is active whilst temporary storing and working on information
        • Each store different for coding and capacity
        • Sensory
          • STM
            • LTM
            • Central Executive
              • Phonological loop
                • Deals with auditory information, preserves order information arrives at, stores words heard
                  • 2 sec duration
                • Episodic buffer
                  • Temporary store for visual, spatial and verbal information, records events (episodes) (added 2000)
                    • Capacity 4 chunks
              • Episodic buffer
                • Temporary store for visual, spatial and verbal information, records events (episodes) (added 2000)
                  • Capacity 4 chunks
              • Visuo-spatial sketchpad
                • Stores visual and spatial information, records arrangement of objects in visual field
                  • Capacity 3/4 chunks
              • Monitors incoming data, allocates systems to tasks, makes decisions
                • Very limited capacity
        • Evaluation
          • KF motorcycle accident supports STM
            • Verbal affected not visual
              • Shows the stores are separate
          • Baddeley described participants had harder time doing two visuals tasks rather than doing visual and verbal task at the same time
            • Easier to do tasks at the same time that require different systems, supports separate stores
          • Argued that the central executive doesn't explain anything, even tho being the most important part
            • Therefore it needs more clarity, some argue is consists of different components
    • Types of LTM
      • Semantic - knowledge based, facts
        • Less personal
      • Episodic - time stamped event memories
        • Have to be conscious at the time to be able to recall
      • Procedural - Learnt skills
      • Tulving (1985) recognised that the MSM view of LTM was too simplistic
      • Evaluation
        • Clive Wearing
          • Remembers playing piano (procedural) and being married and having kids (semantic), but does not remember any events (episodic)
            • Showing that there are multiple stores
        • Neuroimaging evidence
          • Evidence showing different types of LTM stored in different parts of the brain
            • Tulving (1994) had participants carry out various tasks whilst connected to a PET scanner
              • Found episodic (right hemisphere) and semantic (left hemisphere) stored in PFC,
                • Procedural in Cerebellum and Basal ganglia
                  • Others studies found supporting evidence for this, inc. validity
        • Real life applications
          • Belleville (2006) showed that episodic memories can be improved in older people who had mild cognitive impairment
            • Trained participants did better than control, on test of episodic memory
    • Explanations of forgetting
      • Interference
        • Pro-active interference
          • When old memory interferes with new
        • Retro-active interference
          • When new memory interferes with old
        • When memories conflict with each other, we forget either or both, as they become distorted, leading to forgetting
        • Effects of similarity
          • McGeoch and McDonald (1931) had groups remember a list of words 100% accurately, then learn new list
            • - Synonyms    - Antonyms    - Unrelated words              - Meaningless syllables         - 3 digit numbers          - No new list
            • Found synonyms (similar words) had worst effect on recall 1.2, those who didn't have to learn a list new had 4.5 recall
          • Evaluation
            • Support from lab studies
            • Unrealistic stimulus
            • Evidence from Baddeley and Hitch (1977)
      • Retrieval failure
        • Tulving (1983) ESP encoding specifically principle
          • The cue has to be present when we learn and retrieve the memory
            • External cues - Context dependent learning
              • Godden and Baddeley studied sea divers, found recall was 40% lower in non--matching conditions
            • Internal cues - State dependent learning
              • Carter and Cassady (1998) studied anti-histamines, found they performed worse in non-matching conditions
        • Due to insufficient 'cues', the memory exists but cannot be retrieved
        • Evaluation
          • Recall vs recognition
          • Weak effect of context
          • Research support
    • Factors affecting Eye Witness Testimony
      • Misleading information
        • Gabbert (2003)
      • Leading questions
        • Loftus and Palmer (1974)
      • Post event discussion (PED)
        • Untitled
      • Evaluation
        • Applications
        • Artificial tasks
        • Supporting evidence
      • Anxiety
        • Evaluation
    • Improving Eye Witness testimony
      • Untitled

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