Psychology Memory

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  • Created by: anjali_25
  • Created on: 07-09-16 16:05
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  • MEMORY
    • Coding, Capacity and Duration
      • Coding
        • Process of converting information from one form to another is called coding
        • Baddeley
          • He gave a list of words to 4 groups of ppt. They were shown the words and had to recall them in the same order.
            • Findings- STM recall: immediately after was worse with acoustically similar words. LTM recall: after 20 mins was worse with semantically similar words.
          • Evaluation: Artificial stimuli, lists had no meaning to the ppt. therefore cant generalise findings.
      • Capacity
        • Digit Span
          • Jacobs
            • Gave ppt. 4 digits and asked them to recall and added a number when they were correct
              • 9.3=digits 7.3= letters
                • Evaluation: Lacks Validity. Jacobs was a long time ago, confounding variables may not have been controlled
                  • 7+/- 2 is capacity STM
        • Is the amount of information a memory store can hold.
        • Chunking
          • Miller
            • He made observations on everyday practices- noted that things come in sevens
              • 7+/- 2 is capacity STM
      • Duration
        • Of the STM:
          • Peterson & Peterson
            • Tested 24 undergrads. Gave them a trigram and a 3-digit number to count backwards from. (prevented rehearsal)
              • Findings: 18-30 seconds
        • Of the LTM:
          • Bahrick
            • Studied 392 ppt. aged between 17-74. They were shown high school yearbooks
              • Recall was tested: 1) photo-recognition 2) free recall
                • Findings: LTM has a duration of ........... years
                  • Evaluation: Real-life memories were studied. Therefore higher external validity. However ppt. may have looked at yearbook over the years- confounding variables not controlled.
    • The MSM of Memory
      • Atkinson and Shiffrins MSM describes how information flows through the memory system.
      • Sensory registor
        • Stimulus from environment passes into the sensory registor.
          • Iconic (coded visually), echoic (coded acoustically) and haptic (touch and feeling)
          • Duration= 1/2 a second. Capacity= high
      • STM:
        • Duration= 18-30 seconds.
          • Capacity= 7+/- 2 items
            • Coded= acoustically
        • Maintenance rehearsal occurs when we repeat material to ourselves.
          • If rehearsed long enough, it passes into LTM.
      • LTM:
        • Duration= permanent
          • Capacity= unlimited
            • Coded= semantically
        • Material is stored here & when we want to recall it, it must be transferred back to the STM by retrrieval.
    • Types of LTM
      • Episodic memory
        • Long term memory store for personal events. when events occurred and of people, objects, places and behaviours involved.memories have to be retrieved consciously with effort.
      • Semantic memory
        • Long term memory store for our knowledge of the world. Facts and knowledge of what words and concepts mean. need to be recalled deliberately.
      • Procedural memory
        • Long term memory store for our knowledge of how to do things. Memories of learned skills, usually recalled without conscious or deliberate effort.
    • WMM
      • How the STM is organised and functions.
      • Central executive: coordinates the 3 slave systems.
      • Phonological loop: deals with auditory info. Divided into 2.
        • Phonological store= stores words you hear.
        • Articulatory process= allows maintenance rehearsal.
      • Visuo-spatial sketchpad: stores visual info when required. limited capacity.
        • Visual cache= stores visual data
        • Inner scribe= records arrangment of objects in visual fields.
      • Episodic buffer: Temporary store for info.
    • Interference
      • Types of interference:
        • Proactive= old memories disrupt new ones.
        • Retroactive= new memories disrupt old ones.
      • Effects of similarity:
        • McGeoch & McDonald
          • Studies retroactive interference. ppt had to learn a list of 10 words until learnt with 100% accuracy. Then learned new list. (6 ppt groups and all diff lists)
            • Findings: interference= stronger when words are more similar.
    • Retrieval Failure
      • Context- dependant forgetting
        • Godden & Baddeley- deep sea divers
          • 4 conditions (land and water)
            • Findings: recall was better when external contexts matched.
      • State-dependant forgetting
        • Carter & Cassaday- anti-histamine
          • 4 conditions (on drug and not on drug)
            • Findings: recall was better when internal states matched.
    • EWT: Misleading Information
      • Post event discussion
        • Discussions with others contaminates EW's memory.
          • Gabbert- watched clip from diff views then discussed.
            • No discussion= 0 mistakes.
            • Discuss= 71% mistakes.
      • Leading questions
        • Loftus & Palmer
          • Car speed: estimates affected by leading question (smashed, contacted, hit)
      • Why leading q's affect EWT?
        • Response bias- no effect on memory but influences answer.
        • Loftus & Palmer said that a leading q changes the ppt memory of the clip- substitution explanation.
      • Memory conformity
        • Talking to others and believing they are right/ to win social  approval.
    • EWT: Anxiety
      • Negative effects of anxiety on recall:
        • Johnson & Scott (weapon focus effect)
          • high anxiety when knife present= less good recall.
      • Positive effects of anxiety on recall:
        • Yuille & Cutshall (shooting
          • high anxiety with better recall when witnessing real crime.
    • EWT: Cognitive Interview
      • Report everything= include even unimportant details.
      • Reinstate the context= picture the scene and recall how you felt. Context dependant forgetting.
      • Reverse the order= recall from end and work backwards. Prevents dishonesty.
      • Change perspective= put yourself in the shoes of someone elses present. Disrupts schema.

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