AO1 media psychology

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  • Media psychology AO1
    • Affect of media on pro and  anti social behaviour
      • Social learning theory
        • Learning via the media occurs by indirect reinforcement
        • The four steps of modelling are; attention. Retention, reproduction and motivation
        • We are more  likely to imitate behaviour we see if it's carried out by a model similar to us
        • By watching violent television children may develop schemes about the world and how to behave
        • The more real children perceive violent televised scenes to be and the more a child believes the character is like them the more likely a child is to try the behaviour
        • Phillips(1983)  examined crime statistics for he following ten day period after heavy weight boxing was televised, there was a significant rise in murders during that time which did not occur after the Super Bowl was televised
        • Television can alter a children's normative beliefs, the more violence a child views the more likely they are to think that it is normal
        • Key terms
          • Observational learning; acquiring information through observation and imitation
          • Imitations; the reproduction of an act performed by a role model
          • Role model; a person to be looked at by others as an example
          • Vicarious learning; observed behaviours are rewarded and reinforced
          • Self efficacy- situation specific confidence to perform behaviour
          • Schemas; cognitive framework or concepts that help us interpret information
          • Scripts; a sequence of expected behaviours for a given situation
          • Normative beliefs;individuals belief on normal behaviour
          • Identification; the process whereby an individual associates with qualities characteristicsand views of another person
        • Pro-social  behaviour
          • Behaviour that  aims to help others
          • Altruism is unselfish concern for the welfare of others also known as selflessness
    • Persuasive effects of media
      • Hovland and Yale model
        • Source factors
          • Refers to who communicatesthe message
          • The source needs to be credible, need to be thought to have relevant experience, expert and trustworthy and seen to be presenting the truth. We are more likely to be persuaded by a physically attractive source.
        • Message factors
          • Refers to what is being communicated
          • Fear; used to grab attention, to make a message more effective you can use an emotional appeal, usually fear.
          • Repetition; message needs to be repeated to make an impact.. repeated exposure to an object or message increases familiarity and liking,
          • One-verse-two side arguments; in persuasion we may present both sides of the argument as it can be more effective.
        • Audience factors
          • Refers to who the message is intended for.
          • Young children are more susceptible to persuasive messages than adults.
            • (Loftus, 2003)- children's attitudes can be altered by misleading information
            • Martin (1997), found older children had a good understandingof the persuasive intent of advertisements whereas younger children did not.
          • People who are intelligent are more likely to comprehend and retain a message making attitude change more likely. Higher intelligence may lead to more criticism of content
        • Developed in the 1950's by carlhovland and his team at Yale university, was originally interested in propaganda effects on war effort
        • The model suggests if attitude change is to occur then there is a sequential process in which it will happen
          • 1.attention, the message must be noticed.
          • 2.comprehension , in order to be persuaded by the message the individual must under stand the content
          • 3. Reactance, after the message is understood the reader or viewer will react to it
          • 4.acceptance, if the individual had paid attention, understood and reacted to the message they wil then accept it.
      • Attitude  is a settled way of thinking or feeling about something
      • Persuasion is inducing someone to do something through reasoning or argument
      • The elaboration likelihood model
        • The central route
          • The central route involves cognitive effort and active engagement in the message. The message itself is important. The message is likely to lead to change if it is personally relevant. It is more likely to result in permanent change in attitude.
        • The peripheral route
          • People are more swayed by superficial elements of the argument, involves minimal effort. The individual is not motivated by the message so pay little attention to it. Things like attractiveness,Catchy tune etc persuade audience. It is likely to result in temporary change.
        • Put forward by Petty and Cacioppo(1986) who believed the key to persasion is whether the individual is motivated to elaborate on the message.
        • Need for cognition (NC)
          • The degree to which an individual enjoys thinking about the information they receive
          • High NC; have an inherent tendency to search for and reflect information to learn more about the world around them
          • Low NC; rely on the opinions of credible others
      • A common objective of media is to change people attitudes about certain things
    • Psychology of celebrity
      • Evolutionary explanation; gossip theory
        • Proposes that gossiping about high status individuals could help us be more like them
        • Gossiping has been found to be a universal behaviour in the human species
        • For our ancestors social groups were a lot smaller and status was very important. She who were good at gossiping knew what was going on, who to trust and who to be weary of making them more likel to survive/
        • Barkow(1992) suggests we regard media characters as being part of our social group. Therefore media coverage on celebrities triggers gossip mechanisms that have evolved to keep up with affairs.
        • De backer(2005) suggest gossiping serves as a similar function to social grooming n primates allowing us to make alliances in a quicker way.
        • Gossiping about high status individual could help us to be more like them making us more attractive and increase chance of finding a mate.
      • The attraction of celebrity
        • Parasocial relationship is a one sided relationship with someone you haven't met that creates the illusion of friendship
        • Horton and wohl(1956) suggest that television brings personalities and celebrities into the privacy of someone's how and as a result people got to know someone who wasn't really there.
        • Mccutcheon et al developed the celebrity attitude scale CAS to explain three levels of a parasocial relationship.
          • Level 1- entertainment social- people attracted to celebrity because of their perceived ability to entertain
          • Level 2- intense personal- intensive feeling about the celebrity, leading to obsession
          • Level 3- borderline pathological- uncontrollable behaviours and fantasies about their celebrity
        • Absorbtion addiction model
          • Put forward by mccutcheon (2002)
          • Argues that people pursue parasocial relationships due to deficits or lacks within their real life. Relationships wth celebrities are used as an escape from reality or to gain a sense of personal identity or achieve fulfilment
          • Stage 1- absorbtion- person attention is entirely focused on celebrity and they find out everything they can about him/her
          • Stage 2- addiction- individual craves closeness to celebrity and becomes delusional. Motivation is to achieve full sense of identity and social role.
          • Stage 3 is staking and rarely reached but often associated with people who have poor mental health
        • Giles and  Maltby suggest the intense personal dimension of attraction can lead to passive parasocial relationships which may go beyond the parasocial with the person believing they are in a real relationship with the celebrity
      • Celebrity worship
        • Uses the CAS scale where lower scores suggest individualistic behaviours and higher scores indicte over identification and obsession with celebrities.
        • CAS scale; entertainment social; me and my friends like to discuss what my favourite celebrity has done. Intense personal; my favourite celebrity is my soul mate. Borderline pathological; I would die for my favourite celebrity
        • McCucheon et al (2003) subverted 600 participants using Maltby dimensions of celebrity worship and found 20% fell into the first category, 10% in the second category and 1% were considered borderline pathological.
        • There are massive differences between stage 2 and 3, at stage 2 the person is in a passive relationship and does not expect to interact with the celebrity where as stage 3 believe themselves to be in a relationship with the celebrity and how this may develop in the future.
        • Celebrity stalking
          • Stalking is a pattern of behaviour that involves repeated attempts to contact or harass causing fear and alarm.
          • Stalking only occurs in the borderline pathological level of the CAS
          • Sheridan et al (2005) suggested parasocial interaction may extend to active attempts to contact the celebrity.
          • Once an attempt has been made to contact a celebrity, the relationship enters a real dimension much to the distress of the participant.
    • The effects of computers and video games.
      • Positive effects
        • Video games can increase prosiocial behaviour in players supported by gentile et al (2009)
        • Video games can use up more energy than other screen based activities shown by Lanningham foster et al (2006) found you but three times the amount of energy compared to watching TV.
        • Computers can help to nurture existing friendships. Valkenburg and peter(2009) claim adolescents tend to use technology such as MySpace and MSN to nurture their friendships.
      • Negative effects.
        • Video games encourage aggressive behaviour as modern games allow greater interaction. Making psychologists concerned as children may grow up not being able to distinguish between reality and fantasy.
        • Video games can lead to poorer relationships with friends and family. Because when playing or on the internet people remove themselves from social settings or people who struggle to make relationships turn to video games as an escape.
  • The attraction of celebrity
    • Parasocial relationship is a one sided relationship with someone you haven't met that creates the illusion of friendship
    • Horton and wohl(1956) suggest that television brings personalities and celebrities into the privacy of someone's how and as a result people got to know someone who wasn't really there.
    • Mccutcheon et al developed the celebrity attitude scale CAS to explain three levels of a parasocial relationship.
      • Level 1- entertainment social- people attracted to celebrity because of their perceived ability to entertain
      • Level 2- intense personal- intensive feeling about the celebrity, leading to obsession
      • Level 3- borderline pathological- uncontrollable behaviours and fantasies about their celebrity
    • Absorbtion addiction model
      • Put forward by mccutcheon (2002)
      • Argues that people pursue parasocial relationships due to deficits or lacks within their real life. Relationships wth celebrities are used as an escape from reality or to gain a sense of personal identity or achieve fulfilment
      • Stage 1- absorbtion- person attention is entirely focused on celebrity and they find out everything they can about him/her
      • Stage 2- addiction- individual craves closeness to celebrity and becomes delusional. Motivation is to achieve full sense of identity and social role.
      • Stage 3 is staking and rarely reached but often associated with people who have poor mental health
    • Giles and  Maltby suggest the intense personal dimension of attraction can lead to passive parasocial relationships which may go beyond the parasocial with the person believing they are in a real relationship with the celebrity

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