marxism education

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  • Marxism - education
    • Althusser
      • state consists of two elements or apparatuses both of which serve to keep the bourgeoisie in power
        • repressive state apparatus
          • used if working class do not conform through the ideological state apparatuses
            • includes police, army and courts. sometimes use physical coercion to repress the working class
        • ideological state apparatus
          • consists of the media, family, religion and education
            • controls peoples ideas, values and beliefs. passes on dominant ruling class ideology to create a false class consciousness
            • education is an important ideological state apparatus performing two functions
              • education reproduces class inequality
                • done by producing ideologies that disguise the truth
                  • education legitimises class inequality
                  • accept = less likely to challenge capitalism
              • education legitimises class inequality
    • Bowles and Gintis
      • education prepares the next generation for work
        • education is a workforce which is docile, divided workforce motivated by money. leads to accepting exploitation
          • hidden curriculum does this by teaching students to accept discipline, hierarchy and be passive towards the status quo
            • influences children's behaviour, making them behave in a particular way by respecting and listening to teachers which reflects the world of work. often called the correspondence principal
            • is the hidden curriculum really hidden? schools have rules to follow which fulfil the same purpose
          • does capitalism only demand docile, submissive workers? modern society demand intelligent, imaginative workers - post modernism - society more diverse
        • are education and work so closely linked?
      • no research evidence to support theory. assume school has these affects
    • willis
      • Willis rejects that schools brainwash
        • in his study, 'learning to labour', he discovered that the lads rejected school values as they wanted to have a laugh, smoke, drink, be disobedient, reject school values and be sexist and avoid work.
          • they therefore, rejected the ideology that working class can achieve middle class jobs through hard work - evaluation point to meritocracy
      • only studied 12 boys - not representative at all as small scale and girls not considered
    • Bourdieu
      • argues that each social class processes its own cultural framework or set of ideas which he class habitus. also known as cultural capital
        • middle class advantage as they share same norms and values of the school
        • cultural capital enables middle class to pass on superior position to their children - attend private school to get good grades and therefore a well paid job - reproducing the class inequality
    • not all schools act in the same way
    • feminists argue that education reinforces patriarchy as well as capitalism


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