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  • Created on: 08-03-18 17:00
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  • Manzikert and its effect on the First Crusade.
    • Captivity of Romanos
      • The Sultan kept Romanos for a week as they agreed upon what places would become Seljuk land (Antioch, Manzikert, Edessa, Hierapolis). He was allowed to eat at the table.
      • He was paid 1.5 million gold pieces upfront and 360,000 annually and a marriage alliance was created.
      • Alp Arslan did not believe that Romanos was the Byzantium leader, when he realised his identity he forced him to kiss the ground and then treated him with considerable kindness and set him free.
      • When he returned home he was defeated by the Doukas and blinded and placed in a monastery.
    • Prelude
      • Accompanying Romanos was Andronikous Doukas the son of John Doukas; Romanos' rival.
      • There was 5,000 professional Byzantium troops along with Norman and Frankish mercenaries and most of all the Varangian Guard. This totalled of 40,000-70,000 men.
        • This number was split when Romanos asked a Roman General to scout the area. Half of the troops remained. Alp Arslan was also in the immediate area so attacked the Byzantines by surprise.
    • Battle
      • Many professional soldiers fled or were murdered whilst most foot soldiers lead by Doukas were abandoning early on.
      • The Seljuks were organised into a crescent shape whilst a small army were lead by Andronikous Doukas around the rear- this turned out to be a fatal mistake.
      • Alp Arslan made a speech at the start of the Battle stating that he was willing to die in Battle.
      • Many of Romanos' troops fled, were captured or slaughtered when he was captured. those who managed to escape were chased through the night but were able to leave afterwards.
    • Background
      • The Byzantine Empire, although previously extremely powerful declined under the rule of Constantine X. The is when the Byzantines first came into contact with the Seljuks.
      • There had always been tensions between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks Alp Arslan was quick to sign a peace treaty in 1069.
      • In 1071 Romanos sent envoys to renew the treaty and Alp Arslan agreed. Romanos however had already started marching with an army.
    • Aftermath
      • There were only a few lives lost, it was not a battle that had a high frequency of fatalities.
      • Manzikert also was the tipping point for Byzantium Civil War. Although there was no increasing power of the Seljuks, the war inside the Byzantium Empire caused the result of weakness.
      • the deficit at the battle of Manzikert was the turning point and ultimately a cause of the first crusade because it proved the weakness of the Byzantine Empire.
      • Manzikert was a long term strategic catastrophe which resulted in the loss of power over the reign of some lands.


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