Managing stress

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  • Managing stress
    • Cognitive
      • Rational Emotive Therapy
        • Ellis
        • stress arises from faulty / irrational ways of thinking
        • exagerrating negative views - stress and psychological problems
        • Activating experiences
        • Beliefs
        • Consequences
        • Disputing of irrational beliefs
        • Effect of restructured beliefs
      • Stress Innoculation Therapy
        • Meichenbaum
        • Type of CBT
        • 21 students
        • Exam stress
        • SIT, systematic desensitisation & control group
        • Matched groups
          • Anxiety qre, IQ test and anxiety adjective list provide a baseline sxore and allocation to groups
        • 8 therapy sessions
          • SIT - "insight approach", positive statements and relaxation
          • SD - progressive relaxation whilst imagining progressively higher stress
        • Both therapy groups showed improvement
          • SIT showed most improvement and improved anxiety levels more
          • SIT is an effective way of decreasing anxiety of those anxiety prone in exam situations
            • More effective than behavioural (SD) due to cognitive element
      • Cognitive restructuring - process of replacing stress-provoking thoughts with constructive, realistic thoughts
    • Behavioural
      • Biofeedback
        • Operant conditioning
          • Reinforcement = increases the relaxation behaviour
        • Electromyograph (EMG)
      • Budzynski
      • 18 participants
        • 16f 2m
      • Coloraro - advert
        • Tension headaches
      • 3 groups: biofeedback, pseudobiofeedback and control
        • BF: told clicks reflect muscle tension
        • PBF: told to focus on clicks
        • Practice relaxation 15-20 mins / day
        • 16 sessions over 8 weeks
      • Record headaches intensity 0-5
      • tested for depression and hypochondria
      • EMG and questionnaire after expt
      • BF had a significantly lower EMG reading than PBF
      • BF had significantly reduced headaches from baseline and less than PBF and C
      • BF = less drug usage
        • 4/7 in BF group had low headache activity after 18 months
      • BF effective of training patients to relax to reduce headaches; therefore reducing stress
      • Relaxation effective on own but more with BF
    • Social
      • Waxler-Morrison
      • 133 women w/ breat canacer in a Vancouver clinic
      • interviews, questionnaires and medical record checks
        • qre on demography, social networks etc
        • details of diagnosis
        • survival and recurrance rates
      • quasi - fit naturally into different levels of social networkss
      • aspects linked significantly with survival
        • marital status
        • support from and contact with friends
        • total support
        • employment
        • social network
      • Interview data
        • practical help e.g. childcare and transport were a concrete aspect
        • marital status
        • jobs important for support and info
      • prospective study - removes biases of retrospective
      • characteristics e.g. support linked to survival
        • mainly influenced by state of cancer
      • assumes stress is reduced
        • mainly influenced by state of cancer

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