london and ww2

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  • Created on: 31-03-18 10:32
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  • london and the second world war
    • 1.5 million people were evacuated from the 1-4 September and 72 underground stations were used for the evacuation. Britain was divided into 3 areas: evacuation areas, neutral areas, reception areas, people at risk were moved to reception areas. children were allowed to bring 1 suitcase and approx 48% of children left evacuation areas. however not all the children received homes as the host families were allowed to choose which children were allowed to stay with them.
    • the blitz
      • the Blitz was the German bombing of Britain from September 1940-May 1941. the Blitz was aimed to break the morale of the British people. it was also intended to destroy industry. it started in september 1940 without warning, the most common form of bombing were land mines which landed on parachutes and exploded later. in london 13,000 people were killed in 1940.
        • black saturday
          • 348 german bombers escorted by 617 fighters attacked the capital on 'Black Saturday'. during the raid 448 people were killed, 1000 bombs and 1000s of incendiary devices caused widespread damage to the docks and industrial centres like Woolwich Arsenal. many of the bombs were strapped to oil drums to aid the conflagration, the result was a firestorm in the docks that blazed throughout the whole week. firemen from london to as far as bristol fought more that 40 separate fires. most notorious raid took place on sunday 29 december which hit london and 19 churches were destrouyed but st pauls survived and 1/3 of the city was destroyed.
    • the V-1
      • the v-1 was a jet propelled missile carrying one tonne of explosives that flew around 350 mph, when it ran out of fuel it fell to the ground. the first V-1 fell on London on 13 June 1944, until march 1945. most deadly occured 8 june 1944. a V-1 hit the royal military chapel  killing 58 civilians and 63 service personnel.
        • the V-2 attacks
          • the V-2 was the worlds first ballistic missile. it was propelled by a liquid fuel engine. the engine burned for 60 seconds lifting the rocket to a height of 52 miles, the engine would then shut off and the missile would fall to its target. it carried a 2000 pound warhead which was capable of destroying a large building. the V-2 was first used in an attack on 7 september 1944, until march 1945, about 1,000 V-2 fell around london. they caused about 2700 deaths and x2 injuries. the worst V-2 attack happened 25 november when Woolworth store in new cross was suddenly blown apart.
  • air raid precautions in 1939
    • in the second world war, a blackout went in force immediately in September 1939. all lights had to be hidden at night, windows were taped to prevent people from being injured by flying glass. Anderson air raid shelters were distributed; these were dug into the garden and covered with earth. they were designed to protect people against falling brickwork if the houses were bombed. in some areas large concrete shelters with curved roofs were constructed. some people used a Morrison shelter which was a steel cage, which was able to fit under the dining table. people were instructed to keep off the street as much as possible. gas masks were issued to everybody.
      • evacuation
        • 1.5 million people were evacuated from the 1-4 September and 72 underground stations were used for the evacuation. Britain was divided into 3 areas: evacuation areas, neutral areas, reception areas, people at risk were moved to reception areas. children were allowed to bring 1 suitcase and approx 48% of children left evacuation areas. however not all the children received homes as the host families were allowed to choose which children were allowed to stay with them.
      • london and the second world war
        • the blitz
          • the Blitz was the German bombing of Britain from September 1940-May 1941. the Blitz was aimed to break the morale of the British people. it was also intended to destroy industry. it started in september 1940 without warning, the most common form of bombing were land mines which landed on parachutes and exploded later. in london 13,000 people were killed in 1940.
            • black saturday
              • 348 german bombers escorted by 617 fighters attacked the capital on 'Black Saturday'. during the raid 448 people were killed, 1000 bombs and 1000s of incendiary devices caused widespread damage to the docks and industrial centres like Woolwich Arsenal. many of the bombs were strapped to oil drums to aid the conflagration, the result was a firestorm in the docks that blazed throughout the whole week. firemen from london to as far as bristol fought more that 40 separate fires. most notorious raid took place on sunday 29 december which hit london and 19 churches were destrouyed but st pauls survived and 1/3 of the city was destroyed.
        • the V-1
          • the v-1 was a jet propelled missile carrying one tonne of explosives that flew around 350 mph, when it ran out of fuel it fell to the ground. the first V-1 fell on London on 13 June 1944, until march 1945. most deadly occured 8 june 1944. a V-1 hit the royal military chapel  killing 58 civilians and 63 service personnel.
            • the V-2 attacks
              • the V-2 was the worlds first ballistic missile. it was propelled by a liquid fuel engine. the engine burned for 60 seconds lifting the rocket to a height of 52 miles, the engine would then shut off and the missile would fall to its target. it carried a 2000 pound warhead which was capable of destroying a large building. the V-2 was first used in an attack on 7 september 1944, until march 1945, about 1,000 V-2 fell around london. they caused about 2700 deaths and x2 injuries. the worst V-2 attack happened 25 november when Woolworth store in new cross was suddenly blown apart.
  • volunteers
    • the British government set up a series of auxiliary services, for example: Air Raid Precaution (ARP) also there was the Observer cops which was on the lookout for planes on high buildings,counting and identifying them for RAF controllers. the auxiliary fire service worked hand in hand with the Brigade and Heavy Rescue Squads which tried to find victims of air raids. September 1939 there was 1.5 million people enlisted
    • the impact of the blitz on civilian life
      • Air Raid Precautions (ARP)
        • ARP wardens were appointed for every local area; they were responsible for ensuring that the blackout was enforced. they were also responsible for checking how many people were in each house every night, which made them seem 'nosey'
      • the underground
        • many londoners lived in flats or terraced houses. in desperation many tried to get into the underground for protection but at first it was banned. at the end of the second week in september the ban was lifted and they were allowed to enter the underground. some tube stations were hit. in october 1940 Balham station was hit by a bomb which burst a water main and drowned 64 people. also piccadilly was hit and 50 people were killed when a bomb hit the ticket hall.
      • Deep shelters
        • deep shelters could hold some 8,000 people but none were ready until the end of 1942
          • mickeys shelter
            • this could hold 5,000 people

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