Loftus palmer

  • Created by: dyalcin
  • Created on: 23-03-19 14:23
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  • Loftus and Palmer
    • Background
      • Eye Witness Testimony and memory (Barlett)
    • AIM
      • Effects of language on memory. Influence of post- event information
    • METHOD
      • Two lab experiments independent measures
        • EX ONE: IV Verb in critical question "About how fast were the cars going when they ‘verb’ into each other?” DV Speed estimate
          • Smashed, Hit, Collided, Bumped, Contacted
        • EX TWO: IV About how fast were the cars going when they ‘verb’ into each other?” HIT SMASHED CONTROL DV: Critical question broken glass?
    • SAMPLE
      • EX2: 150 undergrads from washington
      • EX1: 45 undergrads from Washington Uni
        • Opportunity sample Elizabeth Loftus stuedents.
          • EX2: 150 undergrads from washington
    • PROCEDURE
      • EX1
        • Shown 7 film clips. Questionnaire with filler and critical verb.
      • EX2
        • 150 participants shown car crash and given questionnaire
          • 50 Two: “About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?”
          • 50 One: “About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?”
          • 50 Three: third group of 50 did not have a question about vehicular speed.
          • One week later participants asked Broken glass?
    • RESULTS
      • EX1:  Smashed 40.8  Collided   39.9  Bumped  38.1  Hit   34.0        Contacted 31.8
        • Distortion of memory or Response bias
      • EX2: Participants who saw broken glass: Smashed 16   Hit   7            Control 6
    • CONCLUSIONS: Two kinds of info which contribute to creation of memories: Info gained DURING and AFTER the event
      • Memory is not like a tape recorder. Human memory is susceptible to change and decay.
      • Small changes in information can cause distortions in memory.
    • EVALUATION
      • ETHICS: Knew test of memory. distracter questions needed for no demand characteristics. Car clips not gruesome
      • VALIDITY: Highly Controlled Lab. Standardised procedure. However may have  thought they needed to remember broken glass.
      • ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY: Controlled lab, low ev. Staged directions aren't recalled in the same way as a stressful real life accident
      • RELIABILITY: Highly controlled lab can be replicated scientific.
      • SAMPLE BIAS: Only college students not generalisable

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