geography cold and rainforest

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  • living world
    • tropical rain forest
      • amazon
        • The Amazon River Basin is home to the largest rainforest on Earth. The basin -- roughly the size of the forty-eight contiguous United States -- covers some 40 percent of the South American continent and includes parts of eight South American countries: Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname, as well as French Guiana, a department of France.
      • The tropical rainforest is a hot, moist biome found near Earth's equator. The world's largest tropical rainforests are in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Tropical rainforests receive from 60 to 160 inches of precipitation that is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year.
    • cold environments
      • the artic
        • Antarctica has an abundance of animal life, almost all of it being dependent on the sea. The largest truly land animal is a wingless midge about 13mm / 0.5 of an inch long. As the animal life is dependent on the sea and are mainly warm blooded, they tend to be pretty large as a survival technique against the extreme and relentless cold. That Antarctica can support such an abundance of large animals is a result of the productivity of the southern polar sea. Follow the link for the animal to find facts and more pictures.
      • tundra
        • The tundra is one of the harshest biomes and it is definitely the coldest! Temperatures in the tundra can reach as low as minus 25 degrees Fahrenheit! Beneath the tundra is permafrost. Permafrost is a permanently frozen sublayer of soil. There is very little rain or snow in the tundra, usually less than 15 inches a year.
        • There are thousands of species of plants in the Arctic tundra. The plants tend to be small and close to the ground. This protects them from strong winds and cold temperatures. Some plants that grow in the tundra include lichen, short shrubs, sedges, grasses, flowers, birch trees and willow trees. Cushion plants, which, also grow in the tundra, are types of plants that grow low to the ground in tight places. They are called cushion plants because they are soft and cushiony.
        • Animals that live on the tundra must be able to adapt to very cold temperatures. They must also be able to raise their young during the very short summer months. Animals found in the tundra include the musk ox, the Arctic hare, the polar bear, the Arctic fox, the caribou, and the snowy owl. Many animals that live in the tundra, like the caribou and the semipalmated plover, migrate to warmer climates during the winter. Others, like the arctic ground squirrel, hibernate during the winter months. There are very few reptiles and amphibians found in the tundra because the temperatures are so cold.

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