Learning Model for Smoking and Gambling

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  • Created by: Grace
  • Created on: 10-05-13 14:44
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  • Learning approach for gambling and smoking
    • Initiation - learn through observation of influential role models - usually more likely to follow someone of similar age, gender, immediacy and career.
      • Children in particular often selectively see positive rather than negative consequesnces (popularity rather than illness or no money) so vicarious reinforcement leads to imitation.
        • Smoking SUPPORT - Deblasio et al found that those adolescents who smoked were 8 times more likely to also smoke.
      • Lopez et al found women start smoking later in life and there are gender differences in the context of smoking - FAIL to address these issues.
    • Maintenance - Operant Conditioning - short term pleasure from smoking or gambling provides more immediate positive reinforcement than the long term effects. Withdrawal symptoms is a negative reinforcement for continuing.
      • Gambling SUPPORT = Lambos et al - peers and fam are more likely to approve of gambling and therefore reinforces it.
      • Smoking SUPPORT = Franklin et al - Smoking related sensory cues rapidly become conditioned stimuli and activate the same parts of the brain that nicotine does.
    • Relapse - Classical conditioning = suggests environmental cues present during the performanceof an addictive behaviour may become associated with the pleasure. These cues acts as prompts creating a craving making people relapse.
      • SUPPORT - Smoking - Hogarth - found that tha amount of craving rises significantly when a conditioned stimulus related to smoking was presented.
    • Considers environmental factors which biological does not
      • BUT does not consider why some people maintain an addiction when there is not contnuous positive reinforcement
        • Most studies are correlational so can't prove causation
          • Deterministic - not all people who see their role moels smoke or gamble do so - they may have the opposite effect as they see bad symptoms. Does not consider why people DONT!


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