Addiction-defined as a state of periodic/chronic intoxication produced by repeated consumption of a stimulus.
Diagnostic manual:Tolerance (increasing the need for more and more (smoking)). Preoccupation (Always thinking about the next time, reliving experiences (gambling)). Loss of control (repeated failed attempts to cut back, always have the need to do it) Bailout (Relying on others to bail you out of situations or cope financially). Damage to relationships (job education, family, partener) Potentially hazardous situations (drink driving, substance abuse). Chasing (Trying to break even with money by gambling more and more).
GAMBLING:Biological Model. Initiation - Believe gambling is a result of hereditory influences (DRD2 VARIANT A1 GENE). Black found that first degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to gamble than distant realtives. The use of twin studies is also used in explaining gambling addcitions as concordance is high for identical twins (if one gamblers it is highly likely that the other will). Maintenance - Claims gamblers continue to do so in order to avoid the unpleasant symptoms of withdrawal. Also, Brains scans reveal that pathological gambers revieve a sruge of blood flow to the brain when gambling compared to social gamblers who recieve a 'buzz'. Relapse - 'tickling up process', previous gamblers are likely to relapse due to a familiar buzz to the brain caused by pleasure in another capacity (near miss in the road) which is likely to kickstart cravings. Also, boredom avoidance.
A02: Alessi- Supports, he found impulsivity is hereditory so gambling must be as these involve similar aspects. Strength- Concordance rate higher in identical twins suggest influence of genetics. However, ignores that twins grow up in the same environment. Limitation- Socially sensitive, removes blame from individual, deems them as hopeless. Strength- Can explain why only some poeple are vunerable to addicitons (unlike LT). Strength- Research found 50% of pathological gamblers had the DRD2 gene. However, 50% didnt so there must be other influencing factors.
SMOKING: Biological Model. Initiation -Believes smoking is a result of the absence/faulty genes (SLC). Lerman found people with this gene are less likely to smoke than those who dont have it. Maintenance - People continue to smoke due to the pleasure it brings them. Proposes the nicotine regulation (Shachter…