Language and Gender theories

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  • Lakoffs deficit  approach: Sociolisation ensures that women remain deficient
    • Language and Gender: Theories
      • Trudgil and Eisikovits: men use more non-standard forms
        • Women use  standard grammar
          • More polite forms e.g. euphemisms
          • Weak expletive eg "oh, sugar"
          • Hypercorrect grammer - avoidance of double negatives etc
        • Men diverge to covert prestige
          • Demotic language
          • End dropping
          • liaison and elision
      • Difference approach: suggests men use language to build status where as women use language to build connections
        • Women use more tag questions
        • Women use more back channeling
        • Women use more intensifiers
        • Relational verb processes are attributed to women more than men
        • Mental verb processes are attributed to women more than men
      • Dominance theory: suggests that men dominate in mixed-sex conversations
        • Men interrupt more
        • Men frame the conversation
        • Men use more deontic modal verbs
        • Material verb processes are attributed to males more than females
        • Verbal verb processes are attributed to men more than women
    • Women often use minimal responses
    • Expletives phrases such as "oh dear" which have no real value


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