Labelling Theory - Social Construction of deviance

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  • Labelling Theory - Social Construction of deviance.
    • Typifications - Cicourel
      • Argues that police use stereotypes of the 'typical delinquent' individuals fitting the typification are more likely to be stopped, arrested and charged.
      • WC more likely to be arrested than MC.
      • MC have parents who can negotiate successfully on their behalf if they do get arrested and will less likely be charged.
        • EVALUATION - Marxists criticise labelling theory for failing to locate the origin of such labels in the unequal structure of capitalist society.
    • Howard Becker
      • Social groups create deviance by creating rules and applying them to particular people whon they label as 'outsiders'.
      • An act or a operson only becomes deviant when labelled by others as deviant.
      • Police, courts and media adopt stereotypes and generate societal reaction.
      • How people amke sense of social reality.
    • Diferential enforcement - Piliavin and Briar - base criminals on steretypes, youth + psyhical appearance.
    • Crime Statistics - can't take at face value or use them as a source as they do not tell the whole story.
    • Deviance is relevant - not the act, societies reaction.
      • Whos doing the act?
      • Place
      • Culture over time
      • Time
      • Whos witnessing the act?
    • Examples
      • Marijuna tax act - 1930's
      • Decriminalisation of suicide - 1960's
      • Decriminilsation of homosexuality USA - 1974
      • Steven lawrence murder.
    • Positivists
      • Man is shaped by Social forces.
      • We can measure the causes of crime.
      • A minority are driven to deviance.
    • Interpretivists
      • Man is shaped by ideas and meanings.
      • Most people engage in devaince.
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