crime and deviance

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  • Created by: Molly
  • Created on: 01-12-12 16:48
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  • labelling theory ( interactionalist theories of crime )
    • suggests many people involve themeselves in some deviant or illegal behaviour so it is hard to sustain distinction between deviants and non deviants, attempts to explain the causes.
      • official crime statistics are regarded as social constructions, do not reveal the real pattern of crime
    • 1. the interaction between deviants and those who define them as deviant and why particular individuals and groups defined as deviant and the cirmumstances in which this occurs
    • focus on...
      • 2. the process whereby rules are selcetivelyy enforced and why the response to rule breaking is not always the same.
      • 1. the interaction between deviants and those who define them as deviant and why particular individuals and groups defined as deviant and the cirmumstances in which this occurs
      • 3. consequences of being labelled deviant
      • 4. cirmumstances in which a person becomes set apart and defined as deviant
      • 5. analysis of who has the power to attatch deviant labels and make them 'stick'
    • howard becker (1997)
      • suggests that an act only becomes deviant when others periceve and define it as such.
      • Becker calls groups such as the mass media and the police who have the power and resourcs to create or enforce rules and impose their definitions of deviance, moral entrepeneurs.
    • selective law enforcement
      • agencies of control use considerable discretion and selective judgement in deciding whether and how to deal with deviant behaviour
    • cicourel (1976)
      • he suggests their subjective perceptions and steryotupes can affect whether criminal labels are attatched and how these lead to social construction of crime statistics.
    • primary and secondary deviance
      • lemert (1972) primary deviance is that has not been publically labelled as such, d.g use of illegal drugs , no consequences unless someone finds out.
      • secondary deviance follows once a persin has been publicaly labelled as deviant.
    • self fulfilling prophecy
      • becker suggests that the labelling process can lead to self fullffilling prophecy
    • evaluation
      • provides insights into the nature of deviance.
      • challenges the idea that deviants are different from normal people
      • importance in reactions of others
      • shows how labelling can lead to self fulfilling prophecy
      • removes the blame for deviance away from the deviant onto those that define it
      • assumes an act isnt deviant untul its labelled as deviant
      • dosent explain causes of deviant behaviour
      • too deterministic
      • dosent explain why there are different reactions to deviance
      • little to say about the victims of crime

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