L2 low SES and obesity

  • Created by: BKW
  • Created on: 08-01-20 13:54
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    • Socioeconomic inequality and childhood obesity
      • Bann, Johnson, Li, Kuh and Hardy found obesity gp had widened between 1953-2015. Societal change has impacted child and adolescent growth - now the poorer you are the more likely to be obese. also highlightes insufficient policies to prevent
      • Noonan&Fairclough 2018 show social gradient to obesity - the more wealthy and educated the family the less likely the child will have obesity/overweight based on maternal education and area level deprivation
      • Equalization hypothesis
        • in adolescence health is more strongly influenced by peers rather than family which reduces health inequality
          • Noonan 2018 looked at 6109 children (7&14y/o) finding obesity continued into teen years (14y/o) and still linked to deprivation.
      • Noonan 2018 showed these halth inequalities are widening. between 2006-12 with 50,125 children using the NCMP obesity among reception and yr6 ^^^ but also the gap between the most deprived and most affluent areas widened., also ^^^ socioeconomic inequality
    • Where has this obesity in deprived areas came from?
      • Genetics?
        • Herrera (2010) we know there is some genetic influence
        • Human genetic make up can only change very gradually, if it was this obesity would also increase very gradually but it hasn't it has increased dramatically over the last 20yrs
        • Doesn't explain why there is more obesity in deprived populations
      • An environmental tipping point?
        • people walk less - people used to have to walk and now people commute an average of 15km in 2011 according to the telegraph
        • fast food are readily available
        • less availability of fizzy drinks and sweets previously
        • used to be more manual jobs
        • people used to get exercise in through daily life and now they don't
        • Portion sizes
          • Robinsn et al2018 -  the more people are given the more they will eat
          • Wansink, Painter and North 2005 - self refilling bowls
          • 3 things to consider 1. calorie density 2. how much 3. How often
          • Fisher2007 - found portion size effect how much we eat as young as 2 years old
          • Hollands 2015 - reviewed 72 randomized control trials - found the more were given the more we eat and compares this to cigarettes. also adults are more likely to choose larger portions, packages and tableware
          • Livingstone&Pourshahidi2014 - found direct causal link between portion size and obesity. found trends of ^^^availability of bigger products/ value pricing have distorted norms/perceptions of what is appropriate to eat
      • Swinburn et al 2011 looked at activity and environment and shows how obesity benefits the economy, gives 4 key changes that have occurred to cause this
        • 1. Low - high mechanisation and motorisation
          • NEAT has vvv. SLOTH makes us less active
        • 2. vvv in the time-cost of food
          • microwave meals - people want low cost quick meals which are also more energy dense
        • 3. ^^^ food energy supply 1960s/70s
        • 4. Traditional foods have vvv vs processed eeneergy dense foods are ^^^
      • The food industry
        • Eg hugh's fat fight with kelloggs
        • profit over people
        • Nudge theory - are companies nudging some people the wrong wa?
    • Why are high deprivation areas at most risk?
      • The individual
        • best&Ppapies2019 - found emotional eating due to stress is a large factor for why low SES consume more
          • Spinosa et al insurance hypothesis
            • Nettle et al 2018 those who experience uncertainty around when their next meal is will eat more when he tested food secure and food insecure individuals
              • people who experience rationing?
      • Social built environment
        • food outlets are often placed in communities with no research on how this will effect it.
          • eg near a school
      • food affordability
        • Jones, Tong and Monsivais -found it is more expensive to by healthy food
        • For the poorest 10% of the uk to eat based on the eat well guidelines they would have to spend 70% of disposable income
      • Austerity&lifestyle
        • we should be mindful of political environment eg gov spendings , some places are more self sustainable than others
        • Foodbanks are being used 4x more
        • If benefits change so do lifestyles
      • Fast food availability
        • more obesogeneic
        • more fast food outlets in deprived areas than affluent areas
        • 2014-2017 fast food outlets ^^^ from 584-636 - 9% increase
      • Food deserts
        • A community that has limited access to healthy food
        • eg Garston in Liverpool is a deprived place. to get to supermarkets you have to drive a fair distance but their is a local KFC etc...


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