Kirchhoff's Laws and Circuits

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  • Kirchhoff's Laws and Circuits
    • Kirchhoff's laws
      • First law
        • The sum of the current entering a junction is equal to the sum of the current exiting a junction
        • The law of conservation of charge applied to electric circuits
      • Second law
        • The sum of the E.M.F. is equal to the sum of the P.D. in a closed loop
    • Series circuits
      • There is a single loop from one terminal of the source of E.M.F. to the other
      • The current is the same in every position
      • E.M.F. is shared between the components
        • If components have the same resistance, E.M.F. is shared equally
        • If components have different resistances, E.M.F. is shared proportionally
    • Parallel circuits
      • Provide more than one path for charges
      • The amount of charge down a path depends on the resistance of the path
        • The greater the resistance, the less current flows down it
      • Total E.M.F. around each separate loop in a parallel circuit is equal to the E.M.F.
      • Each loop can be thought of a a separate circuit- changes to one branch doesn't affect the others
    • Multiple loops and adding components
      • In more complex circuits, consider each loop separately
      • Adding additional components in series reduces the E.M.F. shared between the original components


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