Kantian ethics

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  • Kantian ethics
    • Moral statements are A priori synthetic - know something is moral without experience but it can be verified through experience
      • Untitled
    • There is no such thing as good characteristic because they can be used to do evil, i.e Hitler was a smart and brave guy but he used the traits to do bad
    • Categorical Impertive is a moral command, using these we can always do what is our duty. Categorical Imperatives often issue a command at the beginning for example I should tell the truth, I should look after my brothers. They must come from the autonomous will and our use of reason, they must be logical.
      • The principle of Universalizability - Can the action be universalised? - Would want everyone else to do it?
      • Treat people as ends in themselves - We should treat people how we would want to be treated.
      • Act as if you live in a Kingdom of ends - We should all act
      • The Categorical imperative makes morality objective wheras if we followed the hypothetical imperative morality would be subjective because we would only do X to get Y
        • Hypothetical Imperative is an action that implies that to do something you need to do something else, if you want to lose weight then you must exercise. They're not absolute and only and are usually for the use of something else.
          • VARDY: "there is no answer to the question: Why should I do my duty? except because it is your duty" as if there was any other reason then it would make it the imperative hypothetical and not categorical.
    • Deontological means that the ethical theory is duty based, it is also absoloute. The act is intrinsically right or wrong.
    • Hypothetical Imperative is an action that implies that to do something you need to do something else, if you want to lose weight then you must exercise. They're not absolute and only and are usually for the use of something else.
      • VARDY: "there is no answer to the question: Why should I do my duty? except because it is your duty" as if there was any other reason then it would make it the imperative hypothetical and not categorical.
    • Morality shouldn't be based on feelings, characteristics or anything that uses the heteronomous will but instead based purely on duty. We can figure out what our duty is by using our autonomous will.
    • Kant's Moral law is very similar to Jesus golden rule "love your neighbour as yourself" "do unto others as you would have them do unto you"
      • The second CI gives humans intrinsic value and promotes equality, which is similar to love your neighbour as yourself. Using people is wrong, the end does not justify the means. We are made in God's image and therefore have value because we were designed by God for a purpose
        • Genesis 1:27 "So God created man in his own image
        • Psalm 139:13 "For you created my inmost being: you knit me together in my mother's womb"
      • St Paul "One may not do evil that good may come"
    • Jesus teaches that the person comes before the rules, people are not under the law but it was in fact given to help us understand how to live a good life. If Jesus has followed the rules completely the man he was trying to heal wouldn't of been healed and we would of wanted to be healed if we were him.
      • Matthew 12 "Man was not made for the Sabbath, the Sabbath was made for man"
      • Roman Catholic's follow Aquinas Natural Law, which is A Posteriori, Natural Law has strict guidelines already in place for people to find the moral action they should take. This is opposite to Kant's belief that morality is innate and available through the use of reason alone
    • Untitled
  • A Posteriori synthetic - knowledge known through experience and verifiable through experience
  • If reason is innate and present in all humans then the moral commands generated from out use of reason should be the same
    • Kantian ethics
      • Moral statements are A priori synthetic - know something is moral without experience but it can be verified through experience
        • Untitled
      • There is no such thing as good characteristic because they can be used to do evil, i.e Hitler was a smart and brave guy but he used the traits to do bad
      • Categorical Impertive is a moral command, using these we can always do what is our duty. Categorical Imperatives often issue a command at the beginning for example I should tell the truth, I should look after my brothers. They must come from the autonomous will and our use of reason, they must be logical.
        • The principle of Universalizability - Can the action be universalised? - Would want everyone else to do it?
        • Treat people as ends in themselves - We should treat people how we would want to be treated.
        • Act as if you live in a Kingdom of ends - We should all act
        • The Categorical imperative makes morality objective wheras if we followed the hypothetical imperative morality would be subjective because we would only do X to get Y
        • Deontological means that the ethical theory is duty based, it is also absoloute. The act is intrinsically right or wrong.
        • Morality shouldn't be based on feelings, characteristics or anything that uses the heteronomous will but instead based purely on duty. We can figure out what our duty is by using our autonomous will.
        • Kant's Moral law is very similar to Jesus golden rule "love your neighbour as yourself" "do unto others as you would have them do unto you"
          • The second CI gives humans intrinsic value and promotes equality, which is similar to love your neighbour as yourself. Using people is wrong, the end does not justify the means. We are made in God's image and therefore have value because we were designed by God for a purpose
            • Genesis 1:27 "So God created man in his own image
            • Psalm 139:13 "For you created my inmost being: you knit me together in my mother's womb"
          • St Paul "One may not do evil that good may come"
        • Jesus teaches that the person comes before the rules, people are not under the law but it was in fact given to help us understand how to live a good life. If Jesus has followed the rules completely the man he was trying to heal wouldn't of been healed and we would of wanted to be healed if we were him.
          • Matthew 12 "Man was not made for the Sabbath, the Sabbath was made for man"
          • Roman Catholic's follow Aquinas Natural Law, which is A Posteriori, Natural Law has strict guidelines already in place for people to find the moral action they should take. This is opposite to Kant's belief that morality is innate and available through the use of reason alone
        • Untitled
      • There is an objective moral law and we know this through reason, this moral law is universal
    • If a maxim is not able to be universalized it is because it contradicts the laws of nature, for example "always give but never receive" or it contradicts our will, for example "never help people" we could not universalize this because its not what we would want if needed help.

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