Judicial Reforms-1864.

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  • Judicial Reforms-1864
    • Negatives.
      • Revolutionaries were still dealt with by the Third Section until 1880 and faced arrest and trail in special courts.
      • Local courts could only impose limited sentences (1 year)-Judges elected by Zemstva.
      • The open court system did allow certain lawyers to challenge the control of the government- after 1878 political crimes were tried under special arrangement by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
      • Trial by Jury never introduced in Poland, western provinces and Caucuses. Ecclesiastical and Military Courts did not reform.
    • Positives.
      • Open proceedings conducted orally. Accused could employ council.
      • Judges were given better training and pay.
      • Senate heard appeals and dealt with the most serious crimes.
      • Volost  courts gave fines and reprimands-elected every 3 years.
      • Freedom of the press allowed legal recoreding to go in the newspaper called the Russian Courier.
      • Judges were appointed by the Tsar.
      • Equality before the law established.
      • District criminal cases had barristers and jury. Jury were property owners.
  • Prior to the emancipation of the serfs, people were considered guilty until proven innocent. Minister for Justice Dimitrii Zamyatnin brought in a new legal system, Local courts for minor crimes, and for more serious, judicial chambers and Senate.


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