- Judicial Reforms-1864
- Revolutionaries were still dealt with by the Third Section until 1880 and faced arrest and trail in special courts.
- Local courts could only impose limited sentences (1 year)-Judges elected by Zemstva.
- The open court system did allow certain lawyers to challenge the control of the government- after 1878 political crimes were tried under special arrangement by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
- Trial by Jury never introduced in Poland, western provinces and Caucuses. Ecclesiastical and Military Courts did not reform.
- Open proceedings conducted orally. Accused could employ council.
- Judges were given better training and pay.
- Senate heard appeals and dealt with the most serious crimes.
- Volost courts gave fines and reprimands-elected every 3 years.
- Freedom of the press allowed legal recoreding to go in the newspaper called the Russian Courier.
- Judges were appointed by the Tsar.
- Equality before the law established.
- District criminal cases had barristers and jury. Jury were property owners.
- Prior to the emancipation of the serfs, people were considered guilty until proven innocent. Minister for Justice Dimitrii Zamyatnin brought in a new legal system, Local courts for minor crimes, and for more serious, judicial chambers and Senate.
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