Japan - Population Case Study

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  • Japan - Population Case Study
    • Culture & History
      • Children after marriage
      • Take care of elderly
      • Traditional & paternalistic, however, women in the workforce increased = population decreased
    • Facts
      • World population rank: 10th
      • Population growth rate: 0.7%
      • Life expectancy: 84 y/o
      • Birth rate: 7.9/1000
      • Death rate : 10.2/1000
      • Fertility rate: 1.46
      • Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 males/females
      • Largest ethnicity: Japaese
      • Largest city: Tokyo
    • Physical environment & it's influence on population size & distribution
      • Population: 126,670,000
      • Density: 336.33 people/km2
      • Land use: 75% mountains, 68% forest, 90.7% people live in cities
      • What influences population size and distribution?
        • 6,800 islands = 97% people on largest 4
        • 127 mil 2016 compared to 92.5 mil in 1960
          • Estimated to decrease to 108mil by 2050
        • 93.5% pop. in urban areas = dense
        • Overcome mountainous areas by terracing
        • Climate varies - Tokyo = temperate
          • North = temperate
          • South = tropical
          • Japanese summers = rain & typhoons
        • Tokyo pop. dense = 6158 people/km2
        • Mountainous regions = 100 people/km2
        • Winter = mild, Summer = hot
        • Japan= 40th most dense pop. country in world
    • Dependency ratio: 67.47%
    • Reasons for ageing popualtion
      • Good healthcare, sanitation & living standards
      • 10.2% GDP spent on healthcare 2013
      • Low fat diets = lower obesity and heart disease problems
      • Nuclear & hydroelectric power = cleaner air
      • Contraception = accessible= decreasing fertility rates
      • School = expensive = couples have less children
      • No children before marriage = marriage is decreasing = less children
      • 62% women not married, 72% men not married
      • Women more equal = focused on careers = fewer children
    • Ageing population impacts
      • Positive
        • Due to globalisation, secondary sector still very successful= more revenue brought in to support economy
        • Less pressure on schools
        • Increased demand for elderly leisure activities elderly = jobs created
        • New robot technology to assist the elderly
      • Negative
        • Need 650,000 immigrants/year
        • 25% budget on pensions & social security
        • Economic growth hindered because demographic debt
        • 40% Public spending on elderly
        • Pressure on care workers = more workers
        • 3.8mil elderly live alone w/ no family support
        • Rising number of dementia
        • Less tax paid to cover pensions
        • Major industries may need to outsource to replace workers
        • Lack of workers to keep economy afloat
    • Government responses
      • "Angel Plan", 2000, increase birth rate by free child care + better working hours for women
      • Encouraged immigration of skilled workers - 2.2 mil Japans pop = immigrants
      • 'Womenomics' - pressure on companies to hire more women + give moe leadership roles
      • Government raised retirement age to 70 (men & women)
      • Government raised consumption tax from 5% to 10% to fund pensions, intend to raise another 5% in 2015
      • Government encourage speed dating
      • Fill the population void with robots
    • Demography and culture
      • 98.5%  Japanese natives
      • 1.5% other nations = not ethnically diverse
        • Most of 1.5% come from China = 653,00
      • Median age = 46.7
        • By 2050 median age = 53.2
      • Income = $48,324

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