Italy 1861-70

  • Created by: hastr010
  • Created on: 09-06-19 11:57
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  • Italy 1861-70
    • Politics
      • Prime Minister D'Azeglio sadi 'Italy is now made, now we must make Italians'
        • not up to the challenges, after Cavour's death in 1861 none of the prime ministers were charismatic or had the leadership qualities of the leaders of the Risorginmento, and most only remained in power for a short amount of time
          • Prime Minister Luigi Farrini had mental breakdown and attempted to stab the king
            • Prime Minister Urbano Rattazi was involved in Garribaldi's failed attacks on Rome in 1862 and 1867 and was forced to resign
      • The King lacked statesmen like qualities
        • He was privately scornful of his new subjects, who did not seem to realise taht they now belonged to a nation which he was head of. 2 days of being Governed by bayonets or bribery
      • Constitution based on 1848 statuto
    • Piedmontisation
      • Victor Emmanuel named himself King Victor Emannuel II of Piedmont instead of Italy
      • Piedmonts policies extendended over the whole of Italy. The regional government's were forced to accept the system of local administration, local prefects appointed by the Monarch and local mayors made accountable to the prefects rather than the electorate
        • legal codes similar to Piedmont's. This was opposed everywhere except Tuscanty. 1965- single system of civil law introduced allowing civil marriage but divorce remained illegal.
      • Piedmont's debts that had been created through the battle of 1861 and the crimean war became Italy's debts
      • Literate, tax payers who were over the age of 25 were the only one's allowed to vote, derived from Piedmont's constitution
        • Unrepresentative government, voted by the 2% of Italians actually able to vote
      • Majority of Army, officers and navy were piedmontese
    • Papacy
      • 1860: Pope lost majority of land making up the Papal States
      • Pope began to loose temporal power so brought about tighter on spiritual power
        • July 1970: Doctrine of Papal infalliability - the Pope's spiritual judgement on faith and morals could not be challenged
      • described revoltutions as 'wicked' and excommunicated VE II and the entire governments. He said that any Christian who took part in Italian politcs or worked for the new secular state would also excommunicated
      • The Church had always been a unifying element of Italy so this threat of excommunication caused issues for the unified 'Italy' Liberals found themselves divided between the church and Italy.
      • Threat of Cold War
    • Economy
      • North Thrived with Piedmontese economic policy but the south was mostly agricultural so this brought about a lot of issues.
      • Cavour believed uniting North and South would be the biggest problem
      • No land to graze cattle on or grow crops.
        • Lack of understanding, brought in high taxation to balance budget - cost of living rose and peasants couldn't keep up.
      • Conscription took young men away from farms.
      • 25,000 took to the hills to live as bandits instead and many sicilians joined the mafia which was thriving as the public turned on Peidmont
    • Civil/Brigands war
      • Events
        • Law and Order Broke down in Sicily and Naples
        • Bandits became bolder and a revolution turned into a civil war, killing more than over the course of all the revolutions
        • Piedmontese army of 100,000 sent to control the disorder
          • Took 4 years to quell
            • troops showed no mercy and were given free reign in their attacks not only on rebels but on the ordinary people among them.
        • 'Brigands war' - lawlessness of the situation, playing down the political orgins.
        • Gerneral Negri moved troops to Pontelandolfo and ordere his men to shoot everyone they saw apart from women and children - this lasted 6 hours and the soldiers looted and pillaged at will
          • 1000 were made homeless, 400 killed, many women and girls *****
            • Negri then reported that justice was done
      • Government reaction
        • Belief that the south was rotten and that they were barabrians, idle, corrupt and backwards
          • The belief was spread that the south brought problems on to themselves due to their laziness
        • Southerners treated as inferior
        • The government had only focused on making it economically secure in the north and had neglected the south - bringing about all the issues and the Brigand's war
    • Social
      • Standard of Living
        • fell throughout Itay for all classes
        • Government couldn't balance the books and gov. spending exceeded 60% of its income
        • Grist tax was revived, taxes fell heavily on peasants who coudln't afford them .
        • Many form farms had to move to towns
      • Place of Women
        • treated as 2nd class citizens
        • earned 1/2 of what men earnt
        • Increasing numbers of women found work in factories
          • Many made cigars
            • Long hours poor pay
          • Many got tuberculosis and hundreds of factory workers were dying.
            • No medical treatment
        • Every work brought diseas e.g. rice - malaria
      • The Family Unit
        • Spinning and weaving usually brought teh family together
          • factory work destroyed this and changed the division of labour between men and women
        • Many babies left at foundling hospital to free their mothers for work
        • mechanised weaving looms eliminated the need for men to work and so any were replaced with women and girls - who were paid less
        • many remained arduos and poverty stricken

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