Developments in communications and Transport

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  • Created by: K4typ
  • Created on: 01-06-18 14:52
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  • Developments in communications and Transport
    • Revolutionary 1792-1802
      • Mostly on foot and by horse
      • Most nations reliant on wagon trains
      • some use of Waterways and canals but susceptible to attack
        • or enemies could build fortresses
      • horse powered postal service
    • Napoleonic 1803-1815
    • Franco- Austrian War 1859
      • Railway used by French to transport 120,000 men to battlefield in northern Italy in less than two weeks,
      • Austrians marched 3 or 4 miles a day.  
      • The French 70,000 men by steamship
    • American Civil War 1861-65
      • electic telegraph
      • Railway used to transport troops and rail guns, a number of battles fought around key rail centers Chattanooga  and atlanta
        • after 1st Battle of Bull Run Union appointed McCullum as director of Military railways
          • ensured wagons where emptied quickly to avoid clogging
      • North had better rail network Baltimore + ohio rail company had 30,000 miles of track only 9000 in confederate territory
        • HOWEVER disadvantage as troops where tied down protecting railways from Guerrilla attacks
      • Battle of  1st bull run  1861 confeds brought troops in by rail 
      • Sherman in sweep south his army was supplied by a single rail route of 3 lines covering 500 miles from louisana to atlanta  supplied army of 100,000 men and 32,000 horses for 196 days.  1864 
    • WW1 1914-1918
      • field telephones sped up communication from HQ to Front line
      • Gave Germany advantage through ww1 à large numbers of troops  quickly to an area near Aachen on Belgium border.   To start Schlieffen plan.  
        • Russia advantage over rivals.  Agreed army would have 1st call on rail network when it was needed
          • WW1 1914-1918
            • field telephones sped up communication from HQ to Front line
            • Gave Germany advantage through ww1 à large numbers of troops  quickly to an area near Aachen on Belgium border.   To start Schlieffen plan.  
              • Russia advantage over rivals.  Agreed army would have 1st call on rail network when it was needed
                • Crucial in Prussian victory of 1866 over Austria. Able to deliver force of 250,000 over 300 miles using 5 separate line. 
            • Combustion engine had potential to deliver large numbers of troops to front but engine unreliable  could only be used on roads which where built. 
            • London buses used to take soliders to front + Parisian taxi’s  to take troops to Marne. 1914 
            • still heavy reliance on horses although mostly used for transport purposes
            • horses used in cavalry charge at the battle of mons 1914
            • people still dependent on runners in ww1
          • Crucial in Prussian victory of 1866 over Austria. Able to deliver force of 250,000 over 300 miles using 5 separate line. 
      • Combustion engine had potential to deliver large numbers of troops to front but engine unreliable  could only be used on roads which where built. 
      • London buses used to take soliders to front + Parisian taxi’s  to take troops to Marne. 1914 
      • still heavy reliance on horses although mostly used for transport purposes
      • horses used in cavalry charge at the battle of mons 1914
      • people still dependent on runners in ww1
    • WW2 1939-45
      • development of Radar
        • Proved crucial in the battle of Britain  1940
      • improvements. To aeroplanes tanks and motor vehicle.  With co-ordinated use of technology
      • Development seen in Blitzkrieg by D forces Rapid movement  depended on coordination made possible by improvements in communications
        • Poland 1939 coordinated attack Blitzkrieg
      • Radio in aeroplanes, troop transporters and tanks.
    • Austro-Prussian War 1866
      • Crimean War 1853-56
        • Use of railways allowed supplies to be taken up the hill from the port of Balaclava
        • First use of telegraph led to greater impact from public opinion
        • Russia lack of railways meant it was unable to transport troops --> loosing the war
          • railways could move troops 15 times faster than marching speed
    • Semaphore signalling system 1792
      • sped up communication between front and paris
        • With a line from Paris to Lille Allowed  one sign to be sent in 5 minutes.  
      • Revolutionary 1792-1802
        • Mostly on foot and by horse
        • Most nations reliant on wagon trains
        • some use of Waterways and canals but susceptible to attack
          • or enemies could build fortresses
        • horse powered postal service

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