The Unification of Italy 1789-1896

Reasons for the 1820-1 revolutions

  • In January 1820, news of revolt in Spain encouraged the Carbonari and the Liberals of Naples to take action. Ferdinand had increased church's power to censor books etc. Financial troubles, and people wanted Sanish constitutuion. 
  • The governments attempt at rounding up the rebels was half-hearted
  • In July, King Ferdinand promised to meet the rebels' demands for a constitution like that granted in Spain in 1812
  • This gave the vote to all adult males, limited King's power and abolished clerical and noble priveliges 
  • The revolt leader General Pepe set up a revolutionary government.
  • A revolt started in Sicily as they were determined to win independance as Sicily had been forced with Naples, and so Sicilians felt that Ferdinand was negelcting Sicily 
  • Agricultural prices had fell , getting peasants into more debt and this caused an uprising and riots throughout Sicily where they were demanding a constituional goverment, not unification. 
  • They burnt buildings, released prisoners and sent the Neopolitan governor back home
  • When this news hit Piedmont, The Carbonari gained lots of new members who equally set up a revolt against Austria. 
  • Charles Albert, 2nd in line, issued a vague constituion. When the righful heir returned to Peidmont, Charles Felix, he denounced all revolts along with denouncing Charles Albert
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Reasons for failure in Naples and Sicily

  • In October 1820 the meeting took place with middle class pofessional men, lawyers, bankers, businessmen etc but no peasants or women. What had happened in Sicily was discussed, and they decided that the island must remain part of the Kingdom of Naples and isn't allowed to declare indepndence. Armed force will be used if necessary. 
  • Metternich (Austrian chancelor) was disturbed that the Neapolitan revolution had been so successful. He didn't approve of revolutions as though they disturbed peace in both their states and neihbouring states. He argued that it was only right for the Great Powers (Austria, Prussia and Russia) to meet and take action if necessary to surpress dusturbances. 
  • In 1821, the King of Naples attented a meeting in Laibach (Austria) where Fredinand declared that he granted the cinstitution out of fear and wated Austria's help to restore his absolte rule. The Austrian army then entered Naples in March and Metternich ordered the dismissal of the chief of police. 
  • In Sicily the old order was soon in control again. Naples recovered control over Sicily and abolished the trade guilds (early forms of trade unions) to make another attempt at breaking away less likely. 
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1820-1 Revolutions - Piedmont

  • Victor Emmanuel pursued a very reactionary policy since his return, he declared that the old constitution of 1770 would remain and could never be changed. Piedmont would therefore remain as an absolute monarchy. 
  • When news of what was happening in Naples reached Piedmont, discontent came out. the Carbonari repidly gained new members, and students, army officers an liberals combined to establish a revolutionary government, where they proclaimed their independence as the 'Kingdom of Italy' and declared war on Austria. 
  • Victor Emmanuel was encouraged by an armymutiny in Turin to see his situation as hopeless and abdicate. 
  • The libers turned to Charles Albert, who issued a vague proclamation praising the Spanish contitution, and appointed a new government. 
  • Charles Felix was first in line to the throne though, and he declared Charles Abert as a rebel, who then fled. Charles Felix refused to accept any change in the form of government. 
  • Charles Felix turned to Metternich for aid, Austrian troops, and those loyal to Charles Felix defeated the forces of the Turin liberals at the battle of Novara in 1821. 
  • Piedmont was occupied by an Austrian army until 1823. 
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The Revolutions of 1831-2

  • In july 1830 a revolution occured in Paris, Charles X was forced to abdicate and the new king, Louis Philippe, was more liberal and known as the 'citizen king'. Italian liberals got excited as the new French government might support revolutions in Italy. Revolutions in Modena, Parma and the Papal States to try persuade the local ruler to grant a constitution.
  • Modena and Parma:
  • In Modena the revolt was led by Enrico Misley, he revealed his plans to his leader of a united Italy, and was arrested 2 days before the uprising was due to begin. Duke Francis went to Vienna for Austrian help, when he was away revolutionaries took over Modena and set up provisional government. 
  • The encouraged students from neighbouring Parma to organise riots and to demad a constitution from their ruler. She fled in terror and a provisional government was set up. 
  • Joint army commander was appointed, however Austrian army defeated Modena and Parma, both were occupied by Austrian forces. 
  • The Papal States:
  • Similar uprisings organised by professional classes who resented the oppressive rule of the Church authorities. Papal government put up little resistance and a provisional government was set up. It didn't last long as the Austrian army proved decisive. Metternich's troops moved into the Papal States and defeated the rebels. 
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Revolutionary Failure 1820-32

  • The revolutions were weakened by being local affairs, there was little communication between the revolutionaries and even less co-operation. The revolutionary government in Bologna refused to send help to Modena, for instance. revolutions weren't co-ordinated. They relied on small groups of revolutionaries set up by the Carbnari and other secret societies, but these were isolated units and their aims differed from place to place. Most were surprisingly moderate in their demads, and just wanted the granting of a constitution. 
  • The revolutionary movements were mainly middle class, except in Sicily where Peasants were involved. Popular interest and support were not encouraged by the revolutionary leaders, who believed that if poorly educated people got invoved it would lead to rule by the mob. Ordinary people would therefore welcome back their leaders happily because middle0class revolutionaries didn't want their involvement in politics. 
  • The revolutions had failed because the revolutionaries were divided among themsleves and lacked mass support, and they lacked outside help. it was hoped in 1831 that the French might provide military support, but when this was not forthcoming the Austrian army had an easy time of it. 
  • By 1831 Italy was still merely a geographical expression. Unification wasn't even on the agenda. 
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The revolutions of 1848-9

  • The Pope's reforms in 1848 and early 1849 set an example of other states and their rulers. In Piedmont and Tuscany, press censorship was abolished and proposals were made for a joint customs union (enconomic agreement where states agree to lower their taxes on the goods they trade with eachother) with the Papal States. Austrian-controlled Lombardy  became restless, worrying Metternich who acted swifly to preserve Austian control in Northern italy by making treaties with Modena and Parma and by strengthening Austrian control by troops. 
  • There was a chorus of discontent in italy, and it was becomming louder. Liberals were calling for constitutions, government reform and political freedom, while nationalists demanded independence from Austria and some measure of Italian unity. 
  • the situation only became worse owing to economic problems. Almost 90% of the population of Italy worked on the land and the italian economy was based almosy entirely on agriculture. There was little industry in the North and almost none in the South. When harvets failed in 1846 and 47, problems multiplied not only for peasants but aslo for thse living in the towns. Shortages of wheat etc meant higher prices, which wages didn't meet, and peasnts couldn't afford to feed their families. This was a revolutionary situation. 
  • 1848 was dominated by revolutions, not only in Italy. The 2 most momentus revolutions occured in France an Austria. In Paris an angry mob made King Louis abdicate and flee the country. In Vienna, crowds called for the dismissal of Metternich, the symbol of resistance to reform. In Sicily the first Italian revolution took place. 
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Successes of 1848-9 revolutions (Sicily)

Sucess in Sicily:

  • Ferdinand promised reform when he became king in 1830. He insisted he would govern in a way that promoted the greatest good of the most people. He even appointed a viceroy to make sure that beneficial reforms were carried out in sicily. Notices were put up warning people of a revolution.
  • Revolutionaries had successfully taken over the island and were demanding restoration of the 1812 constitution. A provisional governement was set up and a civil gaurd was formed to control the masses, who were maching on towns destroying properties and freeing prisoners. A parliament was elected and it declared that Naples and Sicily were finally separate, and the King of Naples was no longer the King of Sicily.
  • The Sicilian's aim was to be free from Naples, thwy weren't concerned with national unity - quite the opposite. There's was the separatist movement with the aim of breaking away from Naples and making Sicily independent. 
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Successes in central and northern Italy (1848-9 re

Success in Central and Northern Italy:

  • The Grand Duke of Tuscany, the King of Piedmont and the Pope in the Papal States promised to grant constitutions because of disturbaces, and the rulers of Modena and Parma fled for their lives. 
  • In Austrian controlled Lombardy troubles started with a tobacco boycott. Tobacco was an Austrian state monopoly, people believed if they stopped smoking it Austrian finances would be affected. Soldiers smoking in public caused a full-scale revolution.
  • The Mayor of Milan arranged for armed men to surround government buildings, and after several guards were shot the vice governor gave way to the protestors' demands.
  • The commander in chief of Austrian forces withdrew, not because he was defeated, though he feared the strength of the opposing forces, but because the situation in Austria had changed dramatically. Revolution had broken out in Vienna and Metternich had resigned. 
  • The provisional governments set up in Milan by the revolutionaries prepared the continue the fight against Austria. They decided to ask for help from the neighbouring state of Piedmont, where Charles Albert had just granted a constitution to his people. 
  • A week later, Charles Albert agreed to declare war on Austria. 
  • In Venetia a small scale revolt persuaded the Austrians to surrender. They then voted for union with Piedmont. 
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Failure in Naples and Sicily (revolutions of 1848-

  • The revolution spread to Naples within a few days of the uprising in Palermo. A huge demonstration demanded a constitution. 
  • The King agreed to a 2-chamber parliament with limited powers. He also agreed to form a national guard and free the press from censorship. 
  • Peasant grievances over their right to use common land led to fighting, and now Ferdinand's troops were successful. 
  • By Spetember 1848 the government in Naples were able to send troops to retake Sicily. The Sicilians were defeated and by spring 1949 they were forced to accept reunification with Naples. 
  • The King had already gone back on his promises and abolished parliament, replacing it with absolute rule and a police state. 
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The Impact of the Pope

  • At first all went well with Charles Albert, his army defeated the Austrians at the end of May 1848. In the Papal States the pope's army commander had disobeyed orders and set off with his troops to join Charles Albert's army. This made difficulties for the Pope, who wasn't at war with Austria. He decided to stay out of the war and issued an official speech giving warning/advice to senior clerics. 
  • Pius IX made it clear not only that he would not join in the wa against Austria, but also that he was no longer interested in the idea of beomming head of an Italian federation of states, or even in the idea of the Church lending support for a united Italy. The church had turned its bac on liberalism and gone over to the side of reaction and absolutism. 
  • For Charles albert and other loyal Catholics, the loss of Papal support for their cause was a bitter blow. They would now have to choose between following their political principles and obeying their spiritual leader. Many decided in favour of their political principles. Liberal and nationalist movements became noticably unsymapthetic to the church and ts clergy. 
  • Revolutionary setbacks:
  • The fall of metternich didn't produce much change in Austia. Sophie Bavaria emerged. Her son was crowned as Emperor, and Radetzky arrived back in italy with reinforcements. In jusly he defeated Charles Albert's army at Custoza. An armstice was signed and Lomabardy was left in Austrian hands. The Venitians cancelled their union with Piedmont and prepared to continue war with Austria. 
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The Roman Republic

  • In Rome the Pope's unpopular chief minister was murdered. Rioting followed and he Pope fled from a city in turmoil to take refuge in Naples, while the government he left behind announced a series of reforms. It abolished tax on grinding corn, provided public building work for the unemployed and proposed the holding of a meeting in Rome of representatives from all over italy. the meeting established the Roman Republic. 
  • In March Mazzini arrived in Rome and was elected as head of a governing group of 3 men that would rule the city. During the 100 days of his power, he had to deal with the rich feeing the city, unemploymeny rising and his enemies spreading that he was burning people alive. 
  • He abolished the death penalty
  • Taxation was reformed to aid the poor
  • A dozen new newspapers started up
  • He declared `cathlocism as the official religion of the new republic
  • He urged that Rome, Piedmont, Florence and Venice should work together to end Austrian rule in Italy. 
  • Many Romans took inspiration even though it didn't last long. 
  • The Pope appealed to France, Spain and Naples to help free Rome, and an army of 20,000 men was sent from France to destroy the Roman Republic. The city fell to the French in 1849. A French garrison with the duty of safeguarding the Pope remained in Rome until 1870. 
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Failure Elsewhere

  • The Venetian Republic:
  • The Venetian republic held out courageously against a seige by the Austrian navy. The city was shelled in the summer of 1849. A severe outbreak of cholera added to the misery of starving venetians, who were driven by their hunger and disease to surender to the Austrians in August 1849. Manin was then forced into exile. 
  • Piedmont:
  • Charles Albert decided to re-enter the war. Some hostorians believed he wanted revenge for his earlier defeat, others think it was because he had time to regroup his forces and was ready for action. he may have also thought that France would come to his aid. Within a month he was heavily defeated at the battle of Novara, he then abdicated. His son Victor Emmanuel took his place.
  • Tuscany:
  • In neighbouring Tuscany the Grand Duke had grnted a constitution at the beginning of 1848. When news of the revolution and the dismissal of Metternich reached tuscany, the government decided to send a small army to fight the Austrians. Workers in the cities got annpyed about pay and conditions and middle-class radical extremists began to preach republicanism. The Grand Duke left for Naples. A provisional government was set up and a dictator was appointed. The Austrian army came down to Tuscany and crushed the revolution and restored the Grand Duke to his throne. 
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The Failures of the Revolutions

  • In sicily Neapolitan rule was re-established, the rule was more absolute and repressive. 
  • In the Papal States the Roman Republic had been destroyed and the Pope restored his temporal power by the French soldiers who acontinued to occupy Rome. 
  • Tuscany, Modena and Parma found themselves under abolute rule. 
  • The Venetian Republic came under tighter Austrian control, as did Lombardy.
  • Piedmont had suffered a humiliating defeat by the Austrians in 2 battles. The only success came from the Statuto which was granted to Piedmont by Charles Albert. It was the basis of the constitution of 1860. 
  • None of the rulers forced to escape from their states were away for long.
  • Sicily, Lombardy and Venetia gained indepndence but were unable to keep it.
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Why the Revolutions Failed

  • Lack of Unity:
  • Lack of co-operation between the revolutionary groups. Sicily and Naples were the worst. In Piedmont, Charles Albert wouldn't accept workers from other states in his army, or work with any other revolutionaly groups unless they declared their loyalty to the Piedmontese royal family. 
  • The revolutionaries themselves were divided in their aims. Liberals believed that the granting of a constitution by the ruler was the first step, but the radicals favoured republics. Both groups wanted to expel Austria, but could agree on nothing else. 
  • No universally acceptable leader acceptable to everyone who could co-ordinate policy. 
  • Lack of Popular Support:
  • They didnt just lack guidance, they lacked military resources aswell. Couldnt maintain themselves in power having gained it. Lack of support from the mass of the population. 
  • Lack of International Allies:
  • Austria's military supremacy was the single most important factor in the failure of the revolutions. They were superior in number, better equipped and better led. 
  • Italy needed allies to counter-balace the might of Austria. One major power could be defeated by another. France was at one stage possible, but they went again italian Nationalists. 
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A New Dawn?

  • Italian Nationalism suffered heavy blows with the defeat of the 1848 revolutions, but it wasnt gone. 
  • Emotionally, 1848 reinforced nationalism. Many Italians felt revulsion at the brutal tactics the Austrian army had used and wished to revenge Novara. Many Italians also drew strength from the memories and myths of the revolutions - from the Roman Republic and especially the defence of Garibadi. His forced march with 5000 men from Rome to the coast, became one of the glorious tales of the Risorgimento. 
  • The Italian situation was about to change in the 1850's. In Piedmont the Statuto remained in force and gave opportunities for political life to continue inways that werent posible elsewhere in Italy.
  • Refugees from other states came to Piedmont and settled there, more than 200,000 in Turin and Genoa. They gave Piedmont a more nationalist flavour which paved the way for Cavour. He was to be one of the greatest figures in the hostory of the Unification of Italy. 
  • For nationalism to succeed there needed to be the emergence of a powerful ally. 
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Secret Societies

  • Secret soicities played an imprtant part when the revolutions of 1820 broke out. 
  • They're seen to have developed from the 18th century where men formed themsevles into groups pledged to mutal protection with secret passwords and semi-religious rituals. 
  • The church viewed these groups as a danger to the established social order. 
  • Membership:
  • The societies attracted army officers, students, lawyers, teachers and doctors, all well educated and mostly middle-class. Peasants and workers were almost unknown. The majority of members were enthusiastic and daring. many were idealists, some dreamers. 
  • The great weaknes of these societies was their unwilingness to work together and their lack of overall organisation. Most were small and scattered. They operated on their own. 
  • The Carbonari:
  • They were particularly actve in Southern Italy (naples especailly) and had around 60,000 members, 5% of the male population. The membership kept rising, even after the government tried to surpress the society. It wasnt anit-Catholic and although some members planned arms revolutions and the overthroe of the existing social order, they weren't committed republicans. Their aims were often surprisingly mild. 
  • In Piedmont they hoped to establih a constitutional monarchy, with a King having only limited power. In naples they wanted the King to grant a constitution, not replace him. 
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French Rule under Napoleon

  • The Frnech attacked the Kingdom of Piedmont in 1792, acquiring Nice and Savoy, Napoleon then took over the whole peninsula, he crowned himself King of Italy. He divided it into 3.
  • 1/3 was annexed to France and treated as part of the French Empire (Piedmont, Cental Duchies and the Papal States). 
  • Another 1/3 became known as the Kingdom of italy. (Lombardy, Modena, Bologna, Romanga and Ferra. 
  • The las 1/3 was the Kingdom of Naples, but didn't include Sicily, which was now controlled by Britain. Napoleons brother became King. 
  • Life under French Rule:
  • Some Historians believed that life was traumatic from every point of view with French rule, and the brutality and irreligion of the french soldiery were largely to blame. 
  • 27,000 Italian soldiers accomapnied Napoleon to Russia in 1812, but only 1000, badly wounded soldiers returned. 
  • Italians deeply resented the increased conscription of their young men into the army, along woth the high taxation needed to make good loss of so many soldiers, horses and weapons. 
  • War was Napoleons life and 60% of tax revenue collected in Italy by the French authorites was used to fund military expenditure even in peacetime. 
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The experiences of different groups in Italy

  • The Church:
  • The Roman Catholic Republic suffered badly, its power was greatly reduced and Popes were imprisoned. In 1890 its temporal power came to an end. By 1814 nearly all monisteries had been closed down and the Church's land was sold off to wealthy families. 
  • The Wealthy:
  • Unclear whether they suffered or not. The Cavour's seem to have done well out of the purchase of Church lands, while d'Azeglio, in memoirs writted nearly half a century later, complained that his family was ruined under French rule. 
  • Urban Groups:
  • Substantial benefits for those eho lived in towns, the majoirty were preofessional men and their families. Lower in the Social scale people also profited from increased prosperity as changed by Napoleon brough financial and business advantages. External customs barriers were simplified and internal trade barriers between the Italian states were swpt away and tax collection was reorgainised. The Code Napoleon was introduced and new local Frnech governemtns were set up. Industry was encouraged and vaccinations against smallpox were given. Street lights were introduced. 2-chamber representative government was introduced. Many young Itlian men could gain experience of politics and some were trained in leadershipas offers, or conscripted. This helped out later in the years of revolutions. 
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Experiences continued

  • The Peasants:
  • Peasant families made up 80-90% of Italians and continued to live a life far removed from that of the elite middle-class families of Piedmont of Tuscany. Italian Peasant families were seen as unedicated, unimportant andunworthy of study. 
  • Marriage customs:
  • in the rural South, italiancouples married young, the parents of the girl would supply her with money or property. In Sardinia, beause her famly wouldn't give her a dowry, a girl had to make what she needed with her hands. Some men werent able to marry as they had to remain a bachelor. 
  • Occupations:
  • Most peasants lived in cramed, damp cottages with theit livestock. Many go pallagra, 95,000 cases were reported in the 19th century. 
  • Many young men took to the hills and bacame bandits. Young women moved to the city and lived in houses with as many as 80 people in them, and were disease infested. 
  • Many women had to abaondon their babies if they did get a job, if their conditios improved they could go back to get their baby, but conditions in foundling hospitals were bad, so often the babies had died. 
  • If peasant women reamined in the countryside they had to help their husbands and make some money at home, spinny of weaving for urban merchants. 
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The Restored Monarchies

  • In 1815 French control of Italy came to an end with the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. The European powers decided to return Italian boundaies to what they had been in the 18th cent. 
  • Piedmonet was restored to Victor Emmanuel, this now included Savoy and Genoa. 
  • Lombardy and Veneita were joined together, under new viceroy controlled by Vienna.
  • The Central Duchies (Tuscany, Modena and Parma) were returned to the control of Austria. 
  • The Papal States were returned to to the contol of the Pope, Autrian armed forces there. 
  • In the South, King Ferdinand controlled Naples and Sicily, he deced no change would be made to his government without Austria's approval. 
  • This amounted to italy largely being controlled by Austria, as the Congress of Vienna had intended. Future French invasions had to be prevented, and that meant that Austria must control most of the peninsula. 
  • Metternich (Austrian chancellor) wished to 'extnguish the spirit of Italian unity and ideas about constitutions.'
  • Old Rulers Return:
  • The old ruling families were on their way back after being in exile. Their return was welcomed by the landowners, well-to-do middle class and the Pope and Roman Catholic Church.
  • The Peasants didn't know or care, as it was of little importance in their struggle for survival. 
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Life Under the Restored Monarchs

  • The Restored Monarchs have been seen as trying to go back to pre-Napoleonic times in an attempt to return to absolute governemnt. They have been judged as reactionary (being opposed to political progress). 
  • Most restoration governments used censorship, police surveillance and miliary force to deal with unrest. 
  • Example of preogressive Restoration governemnts include:
  • In Tuscany, Ferdinand was no reactionary, he improved education, the uni's of Pisa and Siena and spending more on the education of girls. He also expanded healthcare facilites. He also allowed freedom of expression, hence a monthly journal of literature, arts and science began to flourish. Its contributors inculded Mazzini. 
  • In Parma, Duchess Marie-Louise was, by the standards of the tike, another enlightened ruler. She repealed the Code Napoleon but replaced it with something very similar, and she would allow no policy of blind reaction. 
  • However, 4 states were backward looking: Piedmont, Modena, the Papal States and Naples. 
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Piedmont, Modena, Papal States and Naples

  • Piedmont:
  • When King Victor Emmanuel. returned to Piedmont in 1815 he set out to turn the clock back to pre-Napoleonic days. the Code Napoleon was done away with and the former 18th centruy laws were restored. He eben took down gaslights as the Frnch introduced them. 
  • the old customs barriers were reintroduced, control of educaion was handed back to the Roman Catholic Church, Jews had to go back the ghettos. 
  • Modena:
  • Similat attempt to return to pre-Napoleonic days. italians holding government office under Napoleon were removed, replaced by members of the nobility. 
  • The Papal States:
  • The Code Napoleon was abolished and censorship strictly imposed. Religious persecution increased, and toleraion of any other belief than Roman Catholic was forbidden. Jews could have their children taken away to be baptised by the Church. Developments in communication were hindered, along with economic growth. Most backward and oppressive state of all Italian states. Most economically poor.
  • Naples:
  • Ferdinand cancelled the Sicillian constitution, Sicily was governed as part of the Kingdom of Naples. Rule was oppressive and reactionary. Few economic successes. 
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Italian Politics 1815

  • Liberals:
  • Believed that the people had the right to some say in government and that this was best done through a representative assembly, or parliament, elected by property owners. They were concerned with establishing a rule of law which guaranteed certain rights, such as fair trial, free speech etc. They were non-violent, middle class and favoured a constitutional monarchy (King is bound by certain agreed restrictions on his power set out by constitution).
  • Radicals:
  • More extreme in their views. They wanted social reforms and a fairer distribution of wealth, and were prepared to use violence. Many believed plitical power should lie with the people, not parliament unless it was elected by all men. Women and Peasants were seen as incapable of taking an intelligent interest in politics. Opposed to restored monarchies.
  • Nationalists:
  • Belived that people of the same race, nationality, culture and tradition should be united in an independent nation of their own. It should have clear geographical boundaries and not to be contolled by any other nation. Some wanted a republic instead of a monarchy. Liberals and Radicals both supported unification as a wat forward, but didnt agree whehter it should be achieved violently or peacefully. Disagreement whether it should all be unified or not. 
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Giuseppe Mazzini's ideas

  • Mazzini's ideas:
  • His overriding aim was 'the brotherhood of people', he believed in equality and had contempt for hatred of foreigners and imperalism. 
  • He believed that the next stage of the world's history would be domination by nations. The political map had to be re-drawn so that people occupied their own nation-states. 
  • Italy had to be unified. 
  • He thought the whole peninsula should be independent, with one central government and locally elected authorities. 
  • There should be a democracy and the guarantee of individual rights. 
  • Italy should be unified by its own efforts. He wanted to avoid help from France.
  • The ideal was that there should be unification 'from below'. The people should rise up against their oppressors, but if monarchs are prepared to fight against Austrian domination, they should be supported. 
  • Socially, he wanted greater equality, with an end to poverty and with taxatio being proportional to wealth. There should be free, compulsary education for all, and women's rights should be granted. 
  • Mazzini was too ahead of his time, and so was thought of as dangerous by moderate liberals in the 1840's. 
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Mazzini's 'Young Italy' & significance

  • Mazzini aspried to be a doer. When Charles Albert became King of Piedmont in 1831, Mazzini wrote to him about the revolution and invited him to be its leader, but no reply came, and so he tried other tactics. 
  • He founded Young Italy, as not much progress was being made by the secet societies. Those who joined had to swear to make Italy 'one free independent repbulican nation'. Members would campaign peacefully and attempt to convince others of their views. 
  • They were Iivolved in various attempts to further the cause of unification:
  • Plan for an uprising in Naples in 1832
  • In a rising in Savoy
  • An attempted coop (sudden and violent sizure of power) in Piedmont. 
  • They didnt come anywhere near success, just spread bad stories about him. 
  • Mazzini's significance:
  • Gave tremendous impetus to natonalism. No one else campaigned for so long. Spent most of his time organising a propoganda campaign to convinve Italians to support the creation of a democratic, self-governing state of Italy. 
  • He converted many to the cause, including the most important of his recruits - Garibaldi.
  • He became preisident of Rome in 1949, he showed highly constructive abilites. 
  • His ideas were just too intellectual for most to understand and roo radical. He was out of Italy for long period of time so became out of touch, and knew little about potential of peasants. 
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Pope Puis IX

  • Gioberti (Piedmontese politician) suggested in 1843 that as the Pope and the Catholic Church were the glories of Itlay, the Italian states should form themselves into a federation with the Pope as its president. The bad reputation of the Papal States as oppressive and corrupt seemed too great a stumbling block for his ideas to be put in operation.
  • However, the situation changed in 1846 with the election of a new Pope, Pius IX, who was believed to have liberal sympathies. 
  • Pius IX was a man of personal piety and deep faith, but emotional, excitable and with a quick temper. He was seen as unpredictable. He couldnt concentrate on anything for long without his ideas getting confused. 
  • He was easily influenced by stronger personalities. 
  • Pius has a firm stand on his Catholic Doctrine, and he appeared to be a liberal but turned out to be a reactionary. 
  • In 1848 he condemned Italian nationalists, rejected the Risogimento and refused to allow Papal troops to help drive out the Austrians. 
  • He also free around 2000 political prisoners, reformed education, the law and papal administration, ended press censorship, allowed Jews out of ghettos, granted Rome a constituton to replace absolute papal rule and created a body to advise the Pope. 
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Charles Albert

  • Politics:
  • Charles Albert could be give the impression of being an old fashioned ruler, It seemed that he would be as abolute and oppressive a monarch as Victor Emmanuel or Charles Felix:
  • He began his reign by signing a treaty with Austria and threatening to attack the liberal goernemnt then in power in France. 
  • He increased the power if the Church in Piedmont
  • He tightened the already severe censorship laws. 
  • Some of Charles Albert's actions were those of a reformer:
  • He made helpful changes in trade laws, reducing duties on imported goods and signing trade treaties with other states.
  • He tidied up the legal system and its laws
  • He allowed non-nobles to fill senior posts in the army
  • In 1848-9 he granted his people a constitution that became tha of united Italy in the 1860's. 
  • He was described as secretive and unsociable, and out of touch with reality. 
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1848 and the Statuto

  • The unrest in Turin spread that persuaded Charles Albert to agree reforms and to grant a constituton. His genera reforms were aimed at taking some of the power away from the monarchy and putting it into the hands of the government officials. Local government was also reorganised and local councils were elected. 
  • The constitution was issued in the form of 14 articles, known as the Statuto. 
  • Phrases such as 'The King's minsters are responsible' left it uncertain what they were repsonsible for. Some form of censorship is implied, but how moderate or severe was unknown. 
  • The full Statuto was published in March 1848 and included a number of other clauses relating to legal equality for all and for equal employment opportunities. it didn't lay down who would elect members of lower chamber. 
  • This was fixed later when the vote was goven to men whi could read and write (2% of the population). 
  • It was however, a major advance. 
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War with Austria

  • Public pressure and the news of a revolutionary government now established in Venetia had voted for union with Piedmont persuaded Charles Albert to declare war in March 1848. 
  • He could have acted out of self-interest in the expectation of Lombardy and Venetia being 'fused' with Piedmont as the price of his help. Or was he concerned to support a revolt against Austria, and make himself leader of a national independence movement. 
  • Charles Albert entered the war with enthusiasm. His army of 60,000 men, incompetently led by himself and ill-prepared for war crossed into Lombardy and occupied the capital (Milan). 
  • The Austrians brought up reinforcements and defeated Charles Albert at Custoza on the boarder of Venetia, he had to as for an armstice, leaving it in Austrian hands again. 
  • He then re-entered the war after believing that the French would come to his aid if needed, but had even less success. 
  • He was heavily defeated at Novara, and abdicated. 
  • This was a blow for Italian Nationalists, however, his main legacy was the Statuto, which outlived him. 
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  • Cavour became Prime Minister in 1852. His previous experience had given him and expert knowledge of economic anf financial affairs, and under his guidance, Piedmont became much richer and more developed. Imports and exports quadrupled, industries flourished, Trade treatie were negotiated, and by 18859, Piedmont had 850km of railway track, almost as much of the rest of Italy put together. 
  • In 1852 Cavour had very limited knowledge and understanding of foerign affiars. 
  • In the 1830's he expressed a vague wish that Italy should be united and free from Austrian domination. 
  • In 1850's he still referred on a number of occasions to the idea of Italian unity as 'rubbish', he didn't see it as realistic until 1859. 
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The Crimean War

  • Cavour was happy to join the Crimean War against Russia in order to gain the friendship of Britain and France, as well as a seat at the peace conference. This motive influenced his decision to join the war. 
  • Cavour's speech in parliament in 1855 presented his vision of a new Italy whose international reputation would be improved further by sending young men to fight in the war, rather than staying to tale part in revolutions, plots and consiparcies which damaged Italy's reputation abroad. 
  • There id evidence that Cavour was doubtful, he was swayed by the King, and by Britain and France. these countries put pressure on Cavour because they knew that Piedmontese troops would be useful in conflict. 
  • They wanted Austria, as well as Piedmont, to join the war and they reasoned that if both these states were on the same side, the ustrians would be reassured that Piedmont wouldn't interfere in Lombardy. 
  • By joining the war Cavour got a seat at the Peace conference in 1856. there, he made the further acquintance of Loius Napoleon, they kept in touch until, in July 1858, Cavour was invited to a meetng at Plombieres. 
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The Plombieres Meeting

  • The meeting was kept a secret. Napoleon organised the meeting, and they both agreed on the outcome. Cavour wrote a letter to Victor Emmanuel giving his version of the discussion.
  • The plan was to go to war with Austria, but Austria would have to provoke it. 
  • There would be a Kingdom of upper Italy, based on Piedmont and ruled over by the house of Savoy. Rome and surrounding area would be controlled by the Pope. The rest of the Papal States, with Tuscant, would form a Kingdom of central Italy. Naples and Sicily would be untouched. 
  • Cavour told the King this arrangement was acceptable, Victor Emmanuel would dominate the whole peninsula. 
  • The Outcome:
  • Napoleon would provide 200,000 men and Piedmont and other Italian states would provide the other 100,000.
  • Italy would become 4 states, loosely grouped under the Pope as a figurehead. 
  • France would recieve Savoy as a reward. 
  • The arrangemts were largely incorperated into a secret treaty in 1859, although some changes were made. Nice was added to Savoy as Napoleons's reward, and the idea of an Italian confederation headed by the pope was abaondoned. 
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The role of Napoleon III

  • His actions were often unpredicatable, and altough there was an element of self-interest in all he did, it was to be with his aid, that Itlaian independence and unity were achieved.
  • Louis napoleon and the Roman republic:
  • He was Preident of the French republic. He knew that Austria would soon threaten Rome, he could benefit from the situation by restoring the Pope and winning the approval of the Chuch which would follow from this. 10,000 troops were headed to Rome to help. He agreed to an armstice until he had 20,000 troops who then attacked. Rome fell in July. 
  • In a sense he had succeeded, Papal rule had been restored, the Austrians had ben kept at bay. The government of Rome was agiain backward and oppressive. 
  • Doing something for Italy:
  • He found himself fightin against Russia defence of Turkey in the Crimean war. 
  • Napoleon III's motives:
  • Napoleon wished to drive Austria out of northern Italy and strenghten Piedmont, he wished to keep the growth withing bounds. Piedmont musn't become atrong enough to act independently or oppose french wishes, or become a threat. 
  • Napoleon wished to replace Austrian influnce with French. 
  • By Italy there is a chance he only wanted to do something for northern Italy, where Piedmont was already french in character. If it was all united it could be a threat to France. 
  • he could make Piedmont a separate french controlled state.
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The Orsini affair

  • Napoleon was moved into action in 1858, after an attempt was made on his life. 
  • A group of 4 Italians , led by Orsini, were responsible. 
  • Orsini had 3 large bombs made specially for him. The bombs were thrown at Napoleon and the Empress. 8 people died and about 150 were injured. The emporer was unharmed.
  • Orsini belived that if he killed Napoleon, a new republican governmet in France would come to the assisstance of Italy. 
  • Orsini wanted Napoleon to help Italy achieve independence, and by doing so to reviece the blessing of 25 million Italian citizens. 
  • Napoleon now decided to do something for Italy, and France. 
  • Napoleon met Cavour at Plombieres in july 1858.
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The war of 1859

  • Preparations for war:
  • After Plombieres and the secret treaty, Cavour began to prepare italians psychologically for war by writing an emotional ant-Austrian speech for Victor Emmanuel to give. 
  • Cavour also mobilised the Piedmontese army in March 1859. 
  • yet war still didn't occur, and there were signs that Napoleon was beginning to get cold feet. he said that unless Austria declared war it might be better to turn to a congress of the Great Powers to settle it, which displeased Cavour. 
  • Declarations of War:
  • In April 1859 Ausria issued a demand that Piedmont should dmobilise is army, as even though the Austrians mobilised an army in Northern italy a month earlier, they couldn't afford to keep it ready for long. 
  • cavour refused to comply and Victor Emmanuel a proclamation: 'Austria provokes Italy' etc.
  • Austria declared war on 29th April 1859, and napoleon declared his support for his ally. 
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The war of 1859

  • The Battles:
  • The war started slowly, marked by unprepardeness on both sides. Napoleon's troops travelled to italy by train, but they arrived before their equipment and provisions. They also didn't have enough ammunition, and so the only consolaton was that the Austrian and Piedmontese generals were even more incompetent. 
  • Lombardy was quickly overrun by French and Piedmontese forces. The Austrians were defeated at Magenta in June, by the french army, and at Solferino, by a combined French-Piedmontese force. 
  • the carnage of the battles was horrific. Napoleon offered his own linen to be torn up as bandages. 
  • The settlement:
  • The war was only 7 weeks because Napoleon suddenly formed a truce with Astria, he argreem an armstice. He didn't consult his Piedmontese allies, he told victor Emmanuel and the King accepted without consulting Cavour. 
  • Piedmont would revice Lombardy, it would first be handed over to France and then passed by Napoleon to Victor Emmanuel. 
  • The previous rules of Tuscany, Modena and Parms were to be restored to their Duchies. 
  • Austria still kept Venetia and therefore remained a powerful influence in Italy. 
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Napoleon's motives

  • As a military leader, Napoleon had no stomach for war. The battles of Magenta and Solferino, ith their great loss of life, affected him severly. He may have thought that by bringing the war to an end he could avoid another bloodbath. 
  • The Austrians had been defeated but not routed. Their forces had withdrawn into the stronghold of the 'quadrilateral' (a group of 4 heavily defended fortresses near the Austrian border). There was little hope that what was left of the French and Piedmontese forces could breach the Austrian defences. 
  • There was danger too that Prussia, already mobilising, might take advantage of Napoleon's absence to attack France. Or, they could have decided to come to the aid of Austria, and a combined Prusso-Austrian army may have been invincible. 
  • In France itself, there was growing criticism of the whole Italian adventure and Napoleon was becoming increasinly suspicious of Cavour's activites. In Tuscany, the Grand Duke had left hid duchy and gone to Vienna, and a provisional government had announced that it wished Tuscany to be united with Piedmont. Revolution had spread to Mondena and Parms, where Piedmontese armies moved in and took over, setting up provisional governments, while Cavour's agents were known to be encouraging revolution in the Papal States. It seemed to Napoleon that Piedmont were trying to gain more power and trritory than what had been agreed at Plombieres. 
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After the war

  • The resigantion of Cavour:
  • Cavour felt that he had been badly let down, he didn't like that Austria still controlled Venetia, and was furious that he hadn't been consulted over the ending of the war. Cavour thought that they should continue without french aid, but when the King refused, he resigned as Prime minister. 
  • An expanded Piedmont:
  • In Tuscany, an assembly voted for annexation by Piedmont. 
  • So too did Modena, Parma and the Romagna in the Papal States. Because of the expected opposition of Napoleon, however, these unions weren't immediately put into effect. Provisional pro-Piedmontese governments were left in control in each of them. 
  • The armstice of Villafrance developed into a peace conference held in Zurich in Novemeber, and this time Piedmont was invited to send representatives. The peace of Zurich was arranged that Lombardy was to be handed over, first by Austria to France and then by Napoleon to Piedmont. 
  • When Cavour returned as prime minister he was able to put the final touches to the final touches to Piedmont's expansion, or, to the unification of Northern Italy. 
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After the war

  • Annexation of Tuscany and Emilia:
  • In 1860 in Tuscany the population voted for union with Piedmont. Despite Villafrance, the new state of Emilia (made up of the Duchies of Modena and Parma, together with the Romagna) did the same. 
  • The war had gotten nationalist feelings and provisional governments had carried out extensive propaganda campaigns. In Tuscany and Emilia majority voted for annexation. Decreed were published declaring them part of the Kingdom of Piedmont.
  • Nice and Savoy:
  • By this time Cavour realised that one way to restore good relations with Napoleon was to arrange for Nice and Savoy to be handed over to him. huge majorities voted in favour of the union. 
  • The result in French speaking Savoy was unsurprisin, but in Italian speaking Naples, the vote were suspicious. 
  • Among those who questioned the accuracy of the results was Garibaldi. He was preparing a military expedition to prevent Nice from being taken over by France when he was diverted by an outbreak of revolution in Sicily. 
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Cavour and Garibaldi

  • Cavour was a nobleman - well educated, intelligent, calm and collected. Garibaldi was a rough, ill-educated soldier and leader of men. 
  • Garibaldi had ideas that were simply and straighforward. All of his actions were aimed at driving out Austria and establishing an Italian Kingdom under the rule of Piedmont. 
  • Cavour was more cautious, he wasnt always fully commited to the idea, until 1859. 
  • Cavour's tactics:
  • Cavour had reasoned that France would be willing to help, in return for Nice and Savoy, but he also realised that Napoleon wouldn't agree to a unlimited expansion of Piedmont and wouldn't wish for Piedmont to become the leader of a united Italy. 
  • United Italy could becaome a threat to France itself. 
  • Garibaldi's boldness:
  • Garibaldi wanted Romw, Venetia, Naples and Sicily, as a part of a united Italy. In 1860 he undertook a military expedition to Sicily to unite Southern Italy with Piedmont by revolution. 
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Cavour and Garibaldi

  • Cavour's motives:
  • Unclear what Cavour actually thought of Garibaldi, but in July 1860 Cavour complained that Garibaldi was planning an absurd scheme. But when it became clear that his expedition to Sicily had been successful, he insisted that Garibaldi had done the greatest service that a man can do. 
  • Success in Southern Italy:
  • When Garibaldi's expedition succeeded, Cavour called for the annexation of Sicily by Piedmont. garibaldi and his men were marching North towards Naples. 
  • Cavour decided to stir up pro-Piedmontese risings in Naples, before Garibaldi entered the city, but they failed and so Garibaldi's army continued to go North. He aslo decided to organise an invasion of the Papal states from the North to block Garibaldi's army, which was invading from the South, before it could reach Rome and the Pope. All incase Garibaldi took over and became more popular. 
  • Garibalsi's forces were successful against the Neopolitain forces, winning victory. 
  • Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel met at Teano, but Gaibaldi agreed to hand over his victories to the King. Almost all of Southern and central Italy came under control of the Kingdom of Piedmont. 
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The Kingdom of Italy

  • Cavour arranged for the people of Naples and Sicily to vote on whether or not there should be a united Italy under Victor Emmanuel. 
  • In Sicily this was difficult as many were illiterate, they had 2 voting slips. One say 'yes' one saying 'no'. they opted for union under Piedmont's Victor Emmanuel. 
  • Voting also took place in eastern and central parts of the papal states occupied by Piedmont, and agin it was voted for union with Piedmont. 
  • In March the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, with Victor Emmanuel as King of Italy. the area around Rome remained under control of the Pope and in French occupation, and Venetia remained in Austrian hands. 
  • Unification was complete everywhere else, under the control of Piedmont. 
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The march to the Coast

  • Garibaldi was appointed dictator of Rome and he allowed to make whatever decisions he thought necessary. 
  • Garibaldi collected nearly 5000 men, and began a forced march towards the Adriatic coast. 
  • It became one of the tales of the Risorgiments, only 1500 men reached the coast. 
  • Garibaldi escaped to Genoa, where he was arrested, to then be let out on the grounds he left Italy immediately.
  • Garibaldi and 'The Thousand':
  •  Garibaldi was given deatils of the plans for forcing war on Austria, he offered to recruit and train volunteers.
  • Garibadi, with a force of 3300 men, had performed well in the war, winning a successful Alpine campaign. However he was sidelined because Cavour didn't trust him. 
  • Victor Emmanuel gave him the highest military decoration in Piedmont. 
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The expedition to Sicily

  • The preparations:
  • In 1860 a revolt started in Palermo in Sicily against the King of Naples. Garibaldi began to collect more volunteers, had a force of around 1200, known as 'The Thousand'.
  • Cavour's attitude:
  • Cavour was far from convived that the expidition would succeed. it went without Pidmontese official support. He wouldn't give him ammunition or equipment. 
  • Success in Sicily:
  • Garibadli advanced on Palermo, the islands capital, gathering support on the way, and defeated a Neopolitain army. 'The Thousand' now nearly 3000, reached Palermo anf founf 20,000 enemy troops waitng for them. He took possession of Palermo. The Austrian garrison withdrew to Naples and Sicily was his. 
  • Governing Sicily:
  • Garibaldi appointed himself dictator, and wom support of the peasants. 
  • Garibaldi introduced Piedmontese laws into Sicil as a preparation for annexation by Piedmont, but he refused to hand it over straight away. he thought if he did Cavour would stop him from using it as a base to get Naples. 
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  • Cavour tried to stop garibaldi multiple times, but each attempt failed. 
  • Garibaldi then headed towards Naples, when he heard that the King of Naples had left the city he accepted its surrender, arriving there in advance of his troops. 
  • He ruled as 'dictator', he couldn't advance further as was barred by a Neapolitan military stronghold in the North. 
  • Cavour forestalls Garibaldi:
  • Cavour was aware that Garibaldi now had nearly 60,000 men, and that they were Mazzinians, so they were opposed to the church and would be glad to join an attack on Rome. 
  • Cavour needed to stop him from attacking Rome. 
  • The Piedmontese army marched through the Papl states. 
  • Unification almost complete:
  • Garibaldi agreed that an territory he got he would hand over to the King. . Ballots that were held voted for annexation by Piedmont. 
  • On the day after the state entry to Naples, Garibaldi handed over his land to Victor Emmanuel. 
  • Garibaldi retired to his island of Capera. 
  • All expcept for Rome and Venetia had been unified under Victor Emmanuel and the constitution of Piedmont had been expanded to the whole of the new Kingdom of Italy. 
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Garibaldi and Rome

  • The first attempt:
  • In 1862, he returned to Sicily and collected 3000 volunteers for the conquest of Rome.  
  • Victor Emmanuel withdrew his support, sensing danger. 
  • They were shot at by local troops and forced to retreat to the mountains, all but 500 of the men deserted. 
  • This who remained were defeated at Aspromonte in a short battle with government troops. Garibaldi was shot in the leg and captured, he then returned to Caprera. 
  • The second attempt:
  • In 1864 the Itlian government agreed to protect Rome from attack and to relocate the italian capital from Turin in Piedmont to Floraence in Tuscany, an indication they no longer wanted Rome as the capital. In return the french agreed to withdraw their troops from Rome. 
  • Garibaldi and his men marched towards Rome, France sent an army equppied with rifles and when Garibaldi attacked he was easily defeated.
  • As a result, the French were back in Rome, which out an end to his part in Italian history.  
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French service

  • In 1870, after the defeat of Napoleon by the Prussian army, Garibaldi offered his services to the new French Republic, that was carrying on the war. 
  • They mangaed under Garibaldi's leadership to defeat the Prussians in 3 small battles. 
  • Garibaldi then returned to the island of Caprea, where he died at 75. 
  • Meanwhile, French troops having been withdrawn to meet dangers from Prussia at home, Rome had been attacked and captured by Italian troops. Garibaldi was distressed that the government should have take what he thought was an unfair advantage of Napoleons misfortunes. 
  • The man who had tried so hard to take Rome felt it was wrong to do so in such bad circumstances. 
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Unification completed

  • In March 1861 the new Kingdom of Italy was officially procalimed. Yet unification wasnt complete as Venetia was occupied by Rome and Rome was occupied by France. 
  • It wasnt until 1866 that Venetia wom back from Austria with the help of Napoleon, and it wasnt until 1870 that Rome became part of a united Itay when Napoleon ordered hos occupying troops to withdraw because they were needed to defend against Prussia. 
  • Venetia:
  • In 1866 Italy signed an alliance with Prussia. italy agreed that if Prussia went to war with Austria, Italy would follow Prussia and declare war on Austria. 
  • Napoleon signed a treaty with Prussia's prime minister. Not only would france remain neutral in an Austro-Prussian war, but at the end of the conflict, France would recieve Venetia if Austria were defeated. This would then be gven to Italy. Once again, Napoleon would be the sponsor of Italian nationalism. 
  • Napoleon also signed a treaty with Austria in which it was agreed that if Austria defeated Prussia, Venetia would be ceded to France and passed onto Italy. In return, France would remain neutral during the war.  
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The war of 1866

  • Italian confidence was high, but its army was defeated by a smaller Austrian force at the battle of Custoza. 
  • The Prussians lost almost 2000 mn, the Austrians nearer 6000. the war came to an end with the Peace of Prague in August. By it, Austria gave up Venetia to Napoleon, who in turn gave it to Italy. 
  • Rome:
  • Success stemmed from the international situation. 
  • In 1870 the Pranco-Prussian war broke out. In July the Prussian prime minister got napoleon to decalre war on Prussia, used to get nationalist feeling and unify Germany. 
  • Napoleon withfrew his troops from Rome, Italy took action. In September Victor Emmanuel sent a letter to the Pope suggesting an agreement. The Pope would have to give up his power, and allow Rome to become the capital of a united Italy. In return he would allow him to keep his temporal power as head of the Church. 
  • The Pope rejected this offer, but the government decided to act, an army of 6000 troops was sent to occupy Rome. Roman citizens voted for union with the rest of Italy, and Rome became the capital city of Italy. 
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The Kingdom of Italy 1861-70

  • The Politicians:
  • The King lacked stateseman like qualities. He was scorful of his new subjects. After Cavour's death, none of the premiers were charasmatc or had the leadership qualities of the heroes of the risorgimento. 
  • Piedmontese dominance:
  • The State was a constitutional monarchy. The constituton was based on the Statuto. Victtir Emmanuel became King of Italy. 
  • The Piedmontese sysytem was extended to cover the whole country. 
  • The various legal codes of individual states were formed into a single criminal code based on that of Puedmont. In 1865 a single system of civil law was adopted.
  • During the 1860's a united Italian army was formed out of the old armies of Piedmont, Naples and Garibaldi's army of the South. The mojority from Piedmont. 
  • Piedmont;s debts became Italy's debts. 
  • Only those who were over 25 and payed taxes could vote (2% of the population). Majority lived in the North. 
  • Many said it was the Piedmontisation rather than unification. 
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The Problem of the Papacy

  • Pope Pius IX lost the mojority of the land making up the Papal states. He concentrated on strengthening his spiritual power over the Church and its members. He condemned progress, liberalism and modern civilisation'. He was also against religious toleraion. 
  • In July he went further with the Doctrine of Papal infallibilty, which decreed that the Pope's spiritual judgement on matters of faith and morals couldn't be challenged as he as the judge.
  • He found himself left with only 44 hectres of land. 
  • Pius IX was determined to demonstrate his continued spiritual importance. As head of the Catholic Church, he announced that any Catholics that took part in Italian politics or worked for the new secular state would be excommunicated.
  • The Church had always been the main unifying element within Italy. Now, even though Catholicism remained the state religion, those who also supported the new government found themselves with difficulties.
  • The old balanced relationship between the Church and the State no longer existed. It threated to become a bitter clash of personalities and values, a veritable Cold War, as over the next 2 decades the Pope would become even more hostile to the Kingdom of Italy.
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Economic problems

  • The governemt was faced with serious geographical, social and economic problems by the need to unite 2 very different areas of the country, the advanced North, and the poor South. 
  • The majority of the population in Naples and Sicily was illiterate, and lived in poverty and squalor, at a level near starvation. Land was taken away from Peasants, which made life worse than before as they couldn;t graze their cattle or grow crops. 
  • The government showed a lack of understanding by introducing higher taxation, in order to balance the budget. The cost of living rose so the qualit of life for the peasants got worse. Conscription made their lives more difficult as it took young men away from the farms. 
  • Peasant families began migrating to the towns in search of work, many turned to crime though. Particularly in Palermo, and Naples, where people feared their lived due to beggars.
  • Civil war:
  • In 1860's, law and order broke down completley in Naples and Sicily. bandits became bolder and more numerous as rural discontent fuelled a revolution which soon turned into a civil war, where more were killed than in all the revolutions. 
  • A Piedmontese army was called in to surpress the issue but it took them over 4 years to do so. The government described it as the 'brigands war', emphasising the lawlessness of the sitaution and playng down the political origins of the troubles and their own responsibilty. 
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Government reactions

  • Government ministers made no attempt to understand what was happeining in the South. They believed Naples was 'rotten'. Neapolitians were 'barbarians': idle, corrupt and backward. They were believed to bring their troubles on themselves by their laziness.
  • An atrocity from one side led to retaliation of the other, and that in turn produced the fresh scores that had to be settled. Troops were given free reign in their attacks, on everyone, not just rebels. 
  • In 1861 General Pier Negri moved against the small town of Pontelandolfo, near Naples. Smarting from the recent loss of 41 comrades he ordered his men to shoot everyone they saw, expect women, children and the infirm. The violence lasted 5/6 hours. Over 1000 peple had been made homeless, 400 died and many girls and children had been *****. 
  • Throughout the 1860's the North and South remained as far apart as ever. 
  • The standard of living:
  • Living standards fell throughout Italy for all social classes as the government struggled to balance the books.
  • The level of taxation was decided by the King, and his interest was making war the most expensive activily. Taxes had to rise to pay for his military activity.  
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Women and Families

  • Women found themselves second-class citizens in a macho society, both in the home, where they were legally subject to their husbands, and at work, where they were discouraged from joining trade unions. In 1862 only 10,000 women, as opposed to 100,000 men were members, and women got payed half as much as men. 
  • Until the 1870's women continued to work in the home, but increasing numbers of women moved into factories. 
  • The hours were long and the pay was low, factory records show that hundreds of women died from factory diseases as they worked so close together in warm conditions. 
  • Every job women did brought them to illness of deformity. Hours of working in cramped conditions/positions. 
  • Working in hazardous conditions in the factories seemed preferable, but their hands were ruined by boiling water. 
  • Factory work destroyed family as a self-contained production unit and changed the division of labour between men and women. 
  • Many men were left without jobs and women were cheaper to employ. 
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Italy after 1870

  • Politics:
  • A period of instability in italy, with 29 changes in prime minister over 50 years. There was a lack of stable party system. A crtic of the government was likely to be offered office, leaving  form of complacent political stagnation that made for bad government. By exlcuding the mass of Italians from voting, the system gave politicnas no reason to attend to the wishes of the masses. 
  • The constitutional monarchy did survive though and there were no revolutions. Extremeists were kept out of power. 
  • In 1877 free and compulsary education was introduced, schools and unis came under state control as part of a policy to provide a unified system of education. 
  • Depretis widened franchise in 1882, reducing the voting age to 21, o the electorate from from half a million to 2 million. 7% could now vote. 
  • Depretis abolsished the 'grist tax' which made it easier for the poor to obtain bread. 
  • There were important legal reforms in Crispi's first term as Prime minister, including the abolition of the death penalty. 
  • There were public health reforms in the late 1880's. 
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Economic problems

  • Large numbers of Italians remained in poverty after 1870 and particularly women in the South suffered from malnutrition, disease and harsh working conditions. 
  • Unrest in Sicily was so bad in 1894 that Crispi sent 40,000 troops to restore law and order. 
  • yet there was considerable economic expansion. Wheat production doubled, an extra 150,000 tonnes of steel was produced, 21,000km of new roads, railways expanded from 2175km to 16,429km by 1900. 
  • There was also a good deal of mechanisation in agriculture. 
  • Balancing of the budget was also achieved. In 1860 the governemnts expenditure had been exceeded by 60%, a decade later it had been overcome. 
  • Taxation was high though. 
  • Growth was much higher in the North than the South too. 
  • In 1893 the Italian banking system also crashed. 
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