Cultural/ Gender Bias

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  • Created on: 02-04-19 20:54
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  • Gender Bias & Cultural Bias
    • Cultural Bias
      • The tendency to judge all people in terms of your own cultural assumptions. This distorts or biases your judgement
      • Cultural Relativism
        • The view that behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates
          • Alpha Bias- assumptions of real differences leads to overlook universals
            • Mead- in Papa New Guinea, found men were more aggressive due to culture but then realised it was universal (biological)
          • Beta Bias- often discussed in defining metal disorder. Frequency of behaviour abnormality may differ in cultures.
            • e.g hearing voices in schiz, some cultures it is normal to hear voices
            • Assuming same rules apply universally, may diagnose mentally ill falsely, diagnosis is relative to our culture.
        • Opposite of ethnocentrim
        • all cultures worthy , try and understand how other cultures sees the world when studying it
      • Ethnocentrism
        • Seeing things from the point of view of ourselves and our social group. Evaluating other groups of people using the standards and customs of one's own culture
          • Alpha Bias- one's own culture seen as different and better. others are devalued.
            • e.g. individualist value independence. collectivist value dependence.
          • Beta Bias- psychologists believe their world view is the only view
            • e.g. IQ tests- believed appropriate to test globally as believed American standard was universal
        • use of own ethnic/ cultural group as a basis for judgements about other grps. Tendency to believe our beliefs are the 'norm' and superior, seeing others as 'strange'
        • Combat by encouraging indigenous psychologies (development of different groups of theories in different countries).
          • e.g. afrocentrism- African-centered thought symbolizes the intellectual,psychological, and social struggle of descendants forcibly removed from Africa and placed in the Americas
        • People travel more and have better understanding of different cultures. Much greater exchange of ideas, helping to reduce ethnocentrism in psyc, real differences are identified and valued.
      • Culture- The rules, customs, morals and ways of interacting that bind together members of a society or some other collection of people
      • Alpha Bias
        • Theories that assume there are real differences between cultural differences
          • e.g. distinction between collectivist and individualistic cultures (Japan + US). would expect individualistic to be less conformist as less group oriented
            • Takano + Osaka (1999) meta-analysis comparing Japan and US in terms of individualism/ collectivism. 14/15 studies did not support common view about difference in conformity.
              • suggests individualism/ collectivism is not a useful distinction
      • Beta Bias
        • refers to theories that ignore/ minimise cultural differences. assume all people the same and reasonable to use same methods/ theories with all cultural grps.
          • e.g. IQ tests (western culture developed). Assuming their view of intelligence applies to all cultures equally.
            • Western- Intelligence is in the individual
            • Ugandan society- intelligence is shared knowledge between one and society
            • (Wober 1974) Using IQ tests on non- western cultures makes them seem less intelligent. = IMPOSED ETIC
            • IQ tests just before WW1 showed african americans and european immigrants as less intelligent than americans in army-lead to stereotypes concerning ethnic groups and IQ
      • Combat by using indigenous researchers in each cultural setting. look at different countries and then get universal behaviour. (Buss et al - looked at 37 countries)
        • Or use samples from different cultural grps.
          • Henrich et al- found american student 4,000 more likely to be  a pp in a psychology study than a random non-westerner.
            • suggests lots of psyc based on middle class, academic young adults, often male
              • unrepresentative globally and within western culture
    • Gender Bias
      • The differential treatment or representation of men and women based on stereotypes rather than real differences
      • Beta Bias
        • A tendency to ignore or minimise differences between men and women. Such theories tend either to ignore questions about the lives of women, or assume that insights derived from studies of men will apply equally well to women
        • Androcentrism can also result in this bias as assume what true for men is true for women and so needs of one gender is ignored (USUALLY WOMEN)
        • Fight or Flight Stress Response- Biological research usually uses male animals as females have differing hormone levels making it harder. Assuming what true for M is for F so male only sample is not a problem.
          • In research, assumed the stress response was universal
            • Shelley Taylor et al. (2000)- provided evidence that females produce a tend- and- befriend response at times of stress. Adaptive because ensuring survival of offspring
          • This Beta bias meant a real difference was ignored, behaviour was not discovered and the stress response was not fully understood
        • Avoiding a Beta Bias
          • Positive- equal treatment= greater access to education and occupation opportunities
          • arguing for equality draws attention away from women's needs and from differences in power between the genders. In a society where one group holds more power , seemingly neutral actions end up benefiting the group with the power. e.g. equal parental leave ignores biological demands of pregnancy, childbirth etc. disadvantaging women
      • Alpha Bias
        • A tendency to exaggerate differences between men and women. The consequence is that theories devalue one gender in comparison to the other
        • Freud- (masculine dominated culture) alpha bias theory of psychoanalysis- freud viewed femininity as failed masculinity
          • Electra Complex- penis envy, and can't undergo Oedipus complex. As superego develops from Oedipus conflict = woman morally inferior (weaker identification to mothers)
        • Reverse Alpha Bias
          • develop research showing difference but emphasise value of women e.g. women better at learning as more attentive etc.
            • challenges stereotype and changes preconceptions
      • Androcentrism- centred or focused on men, often to the neglect or exclusion of women
        • May result in alpha/ beta bias
        • Psychology and psychologists has been very male dominated, theories produced tend to offer male world-view
      • Universality- the aim to develop theories that apply to all people, which may include real differences
        • do this by assuming all people are the same and therefore reasonable to apply the same theories/ methods with both genders.
          • The aim is to produce theories that can claim to have universality
        • Wrong to try and eradicate gender differences as a way to resolve gender bias (that in itself is beta bias). Solution lies in recognising differences but not superiority of genders.
      • Feminist Psychology- agrees biological based sex differences but socially determined stereotypes make a far greater contribution to perceived differences.
        • To get social change we must review our 'facts' about gender. Aims to redress the imbalance.
          • Could use evidence to show women are inferior so that support can be provided. Eagly (1978)- women less effective leaders and so better programmes to get more women leading.
      • If biased, may find difference in genders- not true as may just be that the method is biased so genders appear different.
        • Gender of researcher- Rosenthal (1966)- M are more friendly to F pps than to M pps. = Ms perform less well.
        • Research suggests experiments performed in real world settings found genders judged as more similar in styles of leadership than in lab settings
      • Publication Bias
        • 'John' more likely to get accepted for publication and will be rated higher than same research by 'Jennifer'
    • Difference does not mean bias
    • Essentialism
      • suggesting differences are inevitable and fixed
    • EMIC- behaviours unique to one culture. ETIC- universal behaviour.
    • Hofstede- dimensions of culture aimed to identify '4 anthropological problem areas that different national societies handle differently'
      • POWER DISTANCE- how equal society is- hierarchy
      • COLLECTIVISM/ INDIVIDUALISM
      • MASCULINITY/ FEMININITY- values e.g. ambition- M, community- F
      • UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE- how much they embrace change- traditions
      • Later added- restraint/ indulgence and short term/ long term
  • Gender Bias
    • The differential treatment or representation of men and women based on stereotypes rather than real differences
    • Beta Bias
      • A tendency to ignore or minimise differences between men and women. Such theories tend either to ignore questions about the lives of women, or assume that insights derived from studies of men will apply equally well to women
      • Androcentrism can also result in this bias as assume what true for men is true for women and so needs of one gender is ignored (USUALLY WOMEN)
      • Fight or Flight Stress Response- Biological research usually uses male animals as females have differing hormone levels making it harder. Assuming what true for M is for F so male only sample is not a problem.
        • In research, assumed the stress response was universal
          • Shelley Taylor et al. (2000)- provided evidence that females produce a tend- and- befriend response at times of stress. Adaptive because ensuring survival of offspring
        • This Beta bias meant a real difference was ignored, behaviour was not discovered and the stress response was not fully understood
      • Avoiding a Beta Bias
        • Positive- equal treatment= greater access to education and occupation opportunities
        • arguing for equality draws attention away from women's needs and from differences in power between the genders. In a society where one group holds more power , seemingly neutral actions end up benefiting the group with the power. e.g. equal parental leave ignores biological demands of pregnancy, childbirth etc. disadvantaging women
    • Alpha Bias
      • A tendency to exaggerate differences between men and women. The consequence is that theories devalue one gender in comparison to the other
      • Freud- (masculine dominated culture) alpha bias theory of psychoanalysis- freud viewed femininity as failed masculinity
        • Electra Complex- penis envy, and can't undergo Oedipus complex. As superego develops from Oedipus conflict = woman morally inferior (weaker identification to mothers)
      • Reverse Alpha Bias
        • develop research showing difference but emphasise value of women e.g. women better at learning as more attentive etc.
          • challenges stereotype and changes preconceptions
    • Androcentrism- centred or focused on men, often to the neglect or exclusion of women
      • May result in alpha/ beta bias
      • Psychology and psychologists has been very male dominated, theories produced tend to offer male world-view
    • Universality- the aim to develop theories that apply to all people, which may include real differences
      • do this by assuming all people are the same and therefore reasonable to apply the same theories/ methods with both genders.
        • The aim is to produce theories that can claim to have universality
      • Wrong to try and eradicate gender differences as a way to resolve gender bias (that in itself is beta bias). Solution lies in recognising differences but not superiority of genders.
    • Feminist Psychology- agrees biological based sex differences but socially determined stereotypes make a far greater contribution to perceived differences.
      • To get social change we must review our 'facts' about gender. Aims to redress the imbalance.
        • Could use evidence to show women are inferior so that support can be provided. Eagly (1978)- women less effective leaders and so better programmes to get more women leading.
    • If biased, may find difference in genders- not true as may just be that the method is biased so genders appear different.
      • Gender of researcher- Rosenthal (1966)- M are more friendly to F pps than to M pps. = Ms perform less well.
      • Research suggests experiments performed in real world settings found genders judged as more similar in styles of leadership than in lab settings
    • Publication Bias
      • 'John' more likely to get accepted for publication and will be rated higher than same research by 'Jennifer'

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