History- Paper 1 GCSE - The Peace Treaties

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  • International Relations - Paper 1
    • The Peace Treaties
      • The Big 3
        • David Lloyd George
          • Britain: Keep Britain happy by punishing Germany.
          • Don't punish to harshly, so that we can trade with her in the future.
          • Wants peace so that we can trade with other countries.
          • Strengthen British Empire by taking Germany's colonies.
          • Avoid future wars by not punishing Germany too harshly.
        • Woodrow Wilson
          • USA: World Peace
          • Wants a fair peace treaty.
          • Doesn't want to punish Germany too harshly for fear they may seek revenge.
          • 14 points - sets out his ideas, e.g League of nations, Self Determination (the right of national groups to rule themselves.
        • George Clemenceau
          • France: Punish Germany harshly.
          • Ensure French security by weakening Germany.
          • Get reparations from Germany in order to rebuild France.
          • Revenge.
      • Treaty of Versailles
        • Guilt for war, Armed forces, Reparations, German Territories, League of Nations
        • Guilt - Germany had to accept all the blame for starting WW1 and therefore all the compensation.
        • Armed forces: restricted. 100,000 soldiers, 15,000 sailors, 6 battleships, No tanks, No planes, No Submarines.
        • Reparations: Germany had to agree to pay compensation. Found out it was £6,600 million in 1921. Two years later.
        • German Territories: Lost Alsace Lorraine, West Prussia & Posen, Saar and the Rhineland demilitarised.
        • League of Nations: League of Nations was created by the treaty. Woodrow Wilson's idea.
        • Reactions to the Treaty
          • Britain
            • Most supported it.
            • Lloyd George worried if it was too harsh Germany would seek revenge.
          • France
            • Wanted it to be harsher (could have split Germany into states.
            • Welcomed with enthusiasm by the French
            • Pleased Germany was no longer a threat.
          • USA
            • Concerned the treaty was too harsh.
            • Believed Germany would want revenge.
          • Germany
            • Hated it - lost 10% of land and 12.5% of population.
            • Humiliating - Limits on army.
            • Diktat - had no say so called it a dictated peace.
            • Unfair - didn't start the war on their own.
            • Got no credit for the change in government.
      • The Other Treaties
        • Austria 1919, St Germain. Military restricted to 30,000. Reparations never paid. Land: Austria-Hungary dismantled.
        • Bulgaria 1919, Neuilly. Military restricted to 20,000. Reparations was 2.25 billion francs. Land: lost to Yugoslavia and Romania
        • Hungary 1920, Trianon. Military restricted to 35,000. Reparations 200 million gold crowns - never paid. Land: Austria-Hungary dismantled.
        • Turkey 1920, Sevres. Military restricted to 50,000. Reparations: none. Land: lost to Greece and Italy. Reversed by Lausanne 1923 after rebellion in Turkey,


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