Media Institution

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  • Institution
    • Types of Institutions
      • Independents (free from control, not reliant on support, capable of acting on its own
        • e.g. Film 4, Lionsgate, Summit Entertainment
      • Majors or Conglomerates (group of companies to form one, very rich groups)
        • e.g. Paramount, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros
      • Commercial Broadcasting (programmed by privately owned corporate media.
      • Public Service Broadcasting (publicly funded broadcast, people do not pay to watch, state ownership)
    • Institution Models
      • 1) Manipulative: audiences are passive to the messages delivered, produced by powerful institutions, opinions represented as fact.
      • 2) Pluralist: Audience take an active role in choosing and consuming media.Follows the the biggest proportion of audience.
        • e.g. The Sun in 2001
      • 3) Hegemonic: media is controlled by a small group of people, dominant beliefs presented as the norm.
    • Institution Theories
      • Galtung and Ruge (news texts)
        • Frequency, threshold, unambiguity, meaningfulness, surprise, personalisation, negativity, continuity, consonance, composition, reference to elite nations and people.
      • Alvarado's Seven Spheres
        • Technology, finance, production practices, legislation, circulation, audience construction and use.
      • Marshal McLuhan said we live in a global village where people can communicate instantly without time and space as a restriction.
      • Gillian Dyer's lines of appeal (advertising) according to what the target audience prefer.
      • AIDA(S) (marketing)
        • Attract attention and awareness, create Interest, create Desire, lead to Action on the part of the consumer and Satisfaction to return to the brand and consume more.
    • Key Information
      • Marketing is about building relationships with audiences, the consumers and users of the product.
      • Advertising is the promoting and selling so that people want the ideologies of the product.
      • Product placement- camera clearly fixes on a product.
      • Interpellation- identifying an audience and speaking directly to one person.
      • Intertextuality- links to something else


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