Infectious Disease

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  • Infectious Disease
    • Fighting Infection
      • Physical Barriers
        • Ear wax
        • Skin
        • Hydrochloric acid in stomach
        • Mucus
        • Cilia (tiny hairs in the nose)
        • Ear wax
        • Platelets (part of the blood that forms a scab)
      • White blood cells
        • 1. Phagocytes engulf and digest the pathogen.
        • 2. Produce antitoxins which counteract toxins produced by pathogen
        • 3. Lymphocytes produce antibodies
          • Each invading pathogen has unique antigens on its surface
          • White blood cells produce antibodies which lock on and kill any foreign antigen
          • Antibodies are then rapidly produced and carried round the body
          • If you're infected with the same pathogen, because of our memory cells then the antibodies are made much quicker, so the pathogen is killed before you become ill- you are immune
    • Vaccinations
      • Injection of small amounts of dead/inactive micro-organisms which carry antigens
      • White blood cells produce antibodies to attack the invading cell, when destroyed you beome immune to it.
      • Advantages
        • Controls infectious diseases that were once common (eg smallpox)
        • Epidemics (disease spread in just one country) or pandemic (spreads in more than one country) prevented as people do not spread the disease because they are immune
      • Disadvantes
        • Bad reaction
        • Sometimes may not work


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